Fremdsprachige Zitate

Die fremdsprachigen Zitate, die in den Fußnoten in deutscher Übersetzung gebracht wurden, werden hier nach der 4. Auflage wiedergegeben. Offensichtliche Druck- oder Schreibfehler wurden stillschweigend korrigiert. Wesentliche Abweichungen gegenüber dem Original sind in Fußnoten vermerkt.


S. 49, Note 2
"Desire implies want; it is the appetite of the mind, and as natural as hunger to the body ... the greatest number (of things) have their value from supplying the wants of the mind." (Nicholas Borbon, "A Discourse on coining the new money lighter. In answer to Mr. Locke's Considerations etc.", London 1696, p. 2, 3.)

S. 50, Note 3
"Things have an intrinsick vertue" (...), "which in all places have the same vertue; as the loadstone to attract iron" (l.c.p. 6).

S. 50, Note 4
"The natural worth of anything consists in its fitness to supply the necessities, or serve the conveniences of human life." (John Locke, "Some Considerations on the Consequences of the lowering of Interest", 1691, in "Works", edit. Lond. 1777, v. II, p. 28.)

S. 50, Note 6
"La valeur consiste dans le rapport d'échange qui se trouve entre telle chose et telle autre, entre telle mesure d'une production et telle mesure d'une autre." (Le Trosne, "De l'Intérêt Social", [in] "Physiocrates", éd. Daire, Paris 1846, p. 889.)

S. 51, Note 7
"Nothing can have an intrinsick value" (N. Borbon, l.c.p, 6).
"The value of a thing/ Is just as much as it will bring. "

S. 54, Note 10
"Toutes les productions d'un même genre ne forment proprement qu'une masse, dont le prix se détermine en général et sans égard aux circonstances particulières." (Le Trosne, l.c.p. 893.)

S. 57, Note 13
"Tutti i fenomeni dell' universo, sieno essi prodotti della mano dell'uomo, ovvero delle universali leggi della fisica, non ci danno idea di attuale creazione, ma unicamente di una modificazione della materia. Accostare e separare sono gli unici elementi che l'ingegno umano ritrova analizzando l'idea della riproduzione; e tanto è riproduzione di valores" (...) "e di ricchezza se la terra, l'aria e l'acqua ne' campi si trasmutino in grano, come se colla mano dell' uomo il glutine di un insetto si trasmuti in velluto ovvero alcuni pezzetti di metallo si organizzino a formare una ripetizione. (Pietro Verri, "Meditazioni sulla Economia Politica" - zuerst gedruckt 1771 - in der Ausgabe der italienischen Ökonomen von Custodi, Parte Moderna, t. XV, p. 21, 22.)

S. 61, Note 16
"One man has employed himself a week in providing this necessary of life ... and he that gives him some other in exchange, cannot make a better estimate of what is a proper equivalent, than by computing what cost him just as much labour and time: which in effect is no more than exchanging one man's labour in one thing for a time certain, for another man's labour in another thing for the same time." ("Some Thoughts on the Interest of Money in general etc,", p. 39.)

S. 64, Note 17
"The command of quantity ... constitutes value". ([S. Bailey,] "Money and its Vicissitudes", Lond. 1837, p. 11.)

S. 77, Note 23
"The value of any commodity denoting its relation in exchange, we may speak of it as ... corn-value, cloth-value, according to the commodity with which it is compared; and then there are a thousand different kinds of value, as many kinds of value as there are commodities in existence, and all are equally real and equally nominal." ([S. Bailey,] "A Critical Dissertation on the Nature, Measures, and Causes of Value; chiefly in reference to the writings of Mr. Ricardo and his followers. By the Author of Essays on the Formation etc. of Opinions", London 1825, p. 39.)

S. 94, Note 31
"As it is certain that our physical and moral faculties are alone our original riches, the employment of those faculties, labour of some kind, is our original treasure, and it is always from this employment - that all those things are created which we call riches ... It is certain too, that all those things only represent the labour which has created them, and if they have a value, or even two distinct values, they can only derive them from that (the value) of the labour from which they emanate. (Ricardo, "The principles of Pol. Econ.", 3. ed.. Lond. 1821, p. 334.)

S. 96, Note 33
"Les économistes ont une singulière manière de procéder. Il n'y a pour eux que deux sortes d'institutions, celles de l'art et celles de la nature. Les institutions de la féodalité sont des institutions artificielles, celles de la bourgeoisie sont des institutions naturelles. Ils ressemblent an ceci aux théologiens, qui eux aussi établissent deux sortes de religions. Toute religion qui n'est pas la leur est une invention des hommes, tandis que leur propre religion est une émanation de dieu. - Ainsi il y a au de l'histoire, mais il n'y en a plus." (Karl Marx, "Misère de la Philosophie. Réponse à la Philosophie de la Misère de M. Proudhon", 1847, p. 113.)

S. 104, Note 42
"I metalli ... naturalmente moneta." (Galiani, "Della Moneta" in Custodis Sammlung, Parte Moderna, t III, p. 137.)

S. 104, Note 44
"Il danaro è la merce universale." (Verri, l.c.p. 16.)

S. 105, Note 45
"Silver and gold themselves, which we may call by the general name of Bullion, are ... commodities ... raising and falling in ... value ... Bullion than may be reckoned to he of higher value, where the smaller weight will purchase the greater quantity of the product or manufacture of the country etc." ([S. Clement,] "A Discourse of the General Notions of Money, Trade, and Exchange, as they stand in relations to each other. By a Merchant", Lond. 1695, p. 7.)

"Silver and gold, coined or uncoined, tho' they are used for a measure of all other things, are no less a commodity than wine, oyl, tobacco, cloth or stuffs." ([J. Child,] "A Discourse concerning Trade, and that in particular of the East-Indies etc,", London 1689, p. 2.)

"The stock and riches of the kingdom cannot properly be confined to money, nor ought gold and silver to be excluded from being merchandize." ([Th. Papillon,] "The East India Trade a most Profitable Trade", London 1677, p.4.)

S. 105, Note 46
"L'oro e l'argento hanno valore come metalli anteriore all' essere moneta." (Galiani, l.c.[p.72.])

S. 105f., Note 47
"L'argent en" (des denrées) "est le signe." (V. de Forbonnais, "Éléments du Commerce", Nouv. Édit. Leyde 1766, t. II, p. 143.)

"Comme signe il est attiré par les denrées.' (l.c.p. 155.)

"L'argent est un signe d'une chose et la représente." (Montesquieu, "Esprit des Lois", Œuvres, Lond. 1767, t. II, p.3.)

"L'argent n'est pas simple signe car il est lui-même richesse; il ne représente pas les valeurs, il les équivaut.' (Le Trosne, l.c.p. 910.)

"Qu'aucun puisse ni doive faire doute, que à nous et à notre majesté royale n'appartienne seulement ... le mestier, le fait, l'état, la provision et toute l'ordonnance des monnaies, de donner tel cours, et pour tel prix comme il nous plaît et bon nous semble." (Philipp von Valois, in einem Dekret von 1346.)

"Pecunias varo nulli emere fas erit, nam in usu publico constitutas oportet non esse mercem."

S. 106, Note 48
"If a man can bring to London an ounce of silver out of the earth in Peru, in the same time that he can produce a bushel of corn, then one is the natural price of the other; now if by reason of new and more easie mines a man can procure two ounces of silver as easily as he formerly did one, the corn will ha as cheap at 10 shillings the bushel, as it was before at 5 shillings, caeteris partibus." (Williarn Petty, "A Treatise of Taxes and Contributions", Lond. 1667, p. 31.)

S. 110, Note 51
"In this case" (...) " ... they licked it" (the thing represented to them) "twice to their tongues, after which they seemed to consider the bargain satisfactorily concluded."

S. 112, Note 54
"Our coinage was originally adapted to the employment of silver only - hence an ounce of silver can always ha divided into a certain adequate number of pieces of coin; but as gold was introduced at a later period into a coinage adapted only to silver, an ounce of gold cannot be coined into an adequate number of pieces." (Maclaren, "History of the Currency", London 1858, p. 16.)

S. 115, Note 58
"Le moncte le quali oggi sono ideali sono le più antiche d'ogni narione, e tutte furono usi tempo reali, e perché erano reali con es,sC ai contava.> (Caliszii, "Dalla Moncta>, l.c. p. 153.)

S. 115, Note 59
"This is falsifying a measure, not establishing a standard." [David Urquhart, "Familiar Words", p. 105.]

S. 116, Note 62
"If the wealth of a nation could be decupled by a Proclamation, it were strange that such proclamations have not long since been made by our Governors." ([Petty, "Quantulumcunque concerning Money. To the Lord Marquis of Halifax. 1862",] p. 36.)

S. 116, Note 63
"Ou bien, il faut consentir à dire qu'une valeur d'un million an argent vaut plus qu'une valeur égale an marchandises." (Le Trosne, l.c.p. 919), also "qu'une valeur vaut plus qu'une valeur égale."

S. 120, Note 65
"Ek de tou ... puroz antameibesqai panta , jhsin o Hrakleitz , kai pur apantwn, wsper crusou crhmata kai crhmatwn crusoz ." (F. Lasaslle: "Die Philosophie Herakleitos des Dunkeln", Berlin 1858, Bd. I, p. 222.)

S. 123, Note 66
"Toute vente est achat". (Dr. Quesnay, "Dialogues sur le Commerce et les Travaux des Artisans", [in] "Physiocrates", éd. Daire, I. Partie, Paris 1846, p. 170.)

S. 123, Note 67
"Le prix d'une marchandise ne pouvant être payé que par le prix d'une autre marchandise." (Mercier de la Rivière, "L'Ordre naturel et essentiel des sociétés politiques", [in] "Physiocrates", éd. Daire, II. Partie, p. 554.)

S. 123, Note 68
"Pour avoir cet argent, il faut avoir vendu." (l.c.p.543.)

S. 124, Note 70
"Si l'argent représente, dans nos mains, les choses que nous pouvons désirer d'acheter, il y représente aussi les choses que nous avons vendues pour [...] cet argent." (Mercier de la Rivière, l.c.p. 586.)

S. 125, Note 71
"Il y a donc [...] quatre termes et trois contractants, dont l'un intervient deux fois." (Le Trosne. l.c.p. 909.)

S.130, Note 75
"Il" (l'argent) "n'a d'autre mouvement que celui qui lui est imprimé par les productions." (Le Trosne, l.c.p. 885.)

S. 133, Note 76
"Ce sont les productions qui le" (l'argent) "mettent en mouvement et le font circuler ... Le célérité de son mouvement" (sc. de l'argent) "supplée à sa quantité. Lorsqu'il en est besoin, il ne fait que glisser d'une main dans l'autre sans s'arrêter un instant." (Le Trosne, l.c.p. 915, 916.)

S. 134f., Note 77
"Money being ... the common measure of buying and selling, every body who has anything to sell, and cannot procure chapmen for it, is presently apt to think, that want of money in the kingdom, or country, is the cause why his goods do not go off; and so, want of money is the common cry; which is a great mistake ... What do these people want, who cry out for money? ... The Farmer complains ... he thinks that were more money in the country, he should have a price for his goods ... Then it seems money is not his want, but a Price for his corn and cattle, which he would sell, but cannot ... why cannot he get a price? ... 1) Either there is too much corn and cattle in the country, so that most who come to market have need of selling, as he has, and few of buying or. 2) There wants the usual vent abroad by Transportation ... Or, 3) The consumption fails, as when men, by reason of poverty, do not spend so much in their houses as formerly they did, wherefore it is not the increas of specifick money, which would at all advance the farmer's goods, but the removal of any of these three causes, which do truly keep down the market ... The merchant and shopkeeper want money in the same manner, that is, they want a vent for the goods they deal in, by reason that the markets fail ... a nation never thrives better, than when riches are tost from hand to hand." (Sir Dudley North, "Discourses upon Trade", Lond. 1691, p. 11-15 passim.)

S. 136f., Note 78
"There is a certain measure, and proportion of money requisite to drive the trade of a nation, more or leas than which, would prejudice the same. Just as there is a certain proportion of farthings necessary in a small retail Trade, to change silver money, and to even such reckonings as cannot be adjusted with the smallest silver pieces ... Now as the proportion of the number of farthings requisite in commerce is to be taken from the number of people, the frequency of their exchanges, as also, and principally, from the value of the smallest silver pieces of money; so in like manner, the proportion of money (gold and silver specie) requisite to our trade, is to be likewise taken from the frequency of commutations, and from the bigness of payments." (William Petty, "A Treatise on Taxes and Contributions", Lond. 1667, p. 17.)

"The quantity of coin in every country is regulated by the value of the commodities which are to bc circulated by it i.. The value of goods annually bought and sold in any country requires a certain quantity of money to circulate and distribute them to their proper consumers, and can give employment to no more. The channel of circulation necessarily draws to itself a sum sufficient to fill it, and never admits any more, ([A. Smith] "Wealth of Nations", [vol. III,] I. IV, ch. I. [p. 87, 89.])

S.137, Note 79
"The prices of things will certainly rise in every nation, as the gold and silver increase amongst the people; and, consequently, where the gold and silver decrease in any nation, the, prices of all things must fall proportionably, to such decrease of money." (Jacob Vanderlint, "Money answers all Things", Lond., 1734, p. 5.)

"No inconvenience can arise by an unrestrained trade, but very great advantage; since, if the cash of the nation be decreased by it, which prohibitions are designed to prevent, those nations that get the cash will certainly find every thing advance in price, as the cash increases amongst them. And ... our manufactures and every thing else, will soon become so moderate as to turn the balance of trade in our favour, and thereby fetch the money back again." (l.c.p. 43, 34.)

S. 138f., Note 80
"Si l'on compare la masse de l'or et de l'argent qui est dans le monde, avec la somme des marchandises qui y sont, il est certain que chaque denrée ou marchandise, en particulier, pourra être comparée à une certaine portion [...] de l'autre. Supposons qu'il n'y ait qu'une seule denrée ou marchandise dans le monde, ou qu'il n'y ait qu'une seule qui s'achète, et qu'elle se divise comme l'argent; cette partie de cette marchandise répondra à une partie de la masse de l'argent; la moitié du total de l'une à la moitié du total de l'autre etc., ... l'établissement du prix des choses dépend toujours fondamentalement de la raison du total des choses au total des signes." (Montesquieu, l.c., t. III, p. 12, 13.)

"Mankind having consented to put an imaginary value upon gold and silver ... the intrinsic value, regarded in these metals, [...] is nothing but the quantity." ([J. Locke,] "Some Considerations etc.", 1691, "Works", ed. 1777, vol. II, p. 15.)

S. 139, Note 8
"Silver and gold, like other commodities, have their ebbings and flowings. Upon the arrival of quantities from Spain ..... is carried into the Tower, and coined. Not long after there will come a demand for bullion, to be exported again. If there is none, but all happens to be in coin, what then? Melt it down again; there's no loss in it, for the coining costs the owner nothing. Thus the nation has been abused, and made to pay for the twisting of straw, for asses to eat. If the merchant" (...) "had to pay the price of the coinage, he would not have sent his silver to the Tower without consideration; and coined money always keep a value above uncoined silver." (North, l.c.p. 18.)

S. 140, Note 82
"If silver never exceed what is wanted for the smaller payments, it cannot be collected in sufficient quantities for the larger payments ... the use of gold in the main payments necessarily implies also its use in the retail trade: those who have gold coin, offering them for small purchases, and receiving with the commodity purchased a balance of silver in return; by which means the surplus of silver that would otherwise encumber the retail dealer, is drawn off and dispersed into general circulation. But if there is as much silver as will transact the small payments independent of gold, the retail dealer must then receive silver for small purchases; and it must of necessity accumulate in his hands." (David Buchanan, "Inquiry into the Taxation and Commercial Policy of Great Britain", Edinburgh 1844, p. 248, 249.)

S. 142, Note 84
"That, as far as concerns our domestic exchanges, all the monetary functions which are usually performed by gold and silver coins, may ha performed as effectually by a circulation of inconvertible notes, having no value but that factitious and conventional value [...] they derive from the law, is a fact, which admits, I conceive, of no denial. Value of this description may be made to answer all the purposes of intrinsic value and supersede even the necessity for a standard, provided only the quantity of [...] issues be kept under due limitation," (Fullarton, "Regulation of Currencies", 2. ed., London 1845, p. 21,)

S. 143, Note 85
"Money does wear and grow lighter by often telling over ... It is the denomination and currency of the money that man regard in bargaining, and not the quantity of silver ... 'Tis the publick authority upon the metal that makes it money." (N. Barbon, l.c.p. 29, 30, 25.)

S. 144, Nota 86
"Une richesse en argent n'est que ... richesse en productions, converties en argent." (Mercier de la Rivière, l.c.p. 573.)

"Une valeur en productions n'a fait que changer da forme." (ib., p. 486.)

S. 145, Note 87
"'Tis by this practise they keep all their goods and manufactures at such low rates." (Vanderlint, l.c.p. 95,96)

S. 145, Note 88
"Money is a pledge." (John Bellers, "Essays about the Poor, Manufactures, Trade, Plantations, and Immorality", Lond. 1699, p. 13.)

S. 146, Note 91 "
"Gold! yellow, glittering precious gold!
[...] Thus much of this, will make black white; foul, fair;
Wrong, right; base, noble; old, young; coward, valiant.
... What this, you gods! Why this
Will lug your priests and servants from your sides;
Pluck stout men', pillows from below their heads.
This yellow slave
Will knit and break religions; bless the accours'd;
Make the hoar leprosy ador'd; place thiaves
And give them title, knee and approbation
With senators of the bench; this is it,
That makes the wappen'd widow wed again
... Come damned earth,
Thou common whore of mankind," (Shakespeare, "Timon of Athens")

S. 146, Note 92
"Ouden gar anqrwpoisin oion arguros
Kakon nomism eblaste touto kai poleis
Porqei , tod andras exansthsin domwn.
Tod ekdidaskei kai parallassei frenas
Crhstas pros aiscra pragmaq istasqai brotvn.
Panourgias d edeixen andrwpois ecein,
Kai partos ertou dussebeian eidenai." (Sophokles, "Antigone".)

S. 147, Note 93
"Elpisoushs ths pleonexias anaxein ek tvn mucvn ths ghs autoi toi Ploutwna ." (Athen[aeus], "Deipnos."

S. 147, Note 94
"Accrescere quanto più si può il numero de' venditori d'ogni merce, diminuire quanto più si può il numero del compratori, questi sono i cardini sui quali si raggirano tutte le operazioni di economia politica." (Verri, l.c.p. 52, 53.)

S. 148, Note 95
"There is required for carrying on the trade of the nation, a determinate sum of specifick Money, which varies, and is sometimes more, sometimes less, as the circumstances we are in require ... This ebbing and flowing of money, supplies and accommodates itself, without any aid of Politicians ... The buckets work alternately; when money is scarce, bullion is coined, when bullion is scarce, money is melted." (Sir. D. North, l.c, [Postscript,] p. 3.)

"Silver ornaments are brought out and coined when there is a high rate of interest, and go back again when the rate of interest falls." (J. St. Mills Evidenoe [in] "Repts. on Bankacts", 1857, n. 2084, 2101.)

S. 149, Note 97
"Such a spirit of cruelty reigns here in England among the men of trade, that is not to be met with in any other society of men, nor in any other kingdom of the world." ("An Essay on Credit and the Bankrupt Act", Lond. 1707. p.2.)

S. 152, Note 100
"The Poor stand still, because the Rich have no Money to employ them, though they have the same land and hands to provide victuals and cloaths, as ever they had; which is the true Riches of a Nation, and not the Money." (John Bellers, "Proposals for raising a Colledge of Industry", London, 1696, p. 3, 4.)

S. 152f., Note 101
"On one occasion" (1839) "an old grasping banker" (...) "in his private room raised the lid of the desk he sat over, and displayed to a friend rolls of banknotes, saying with intense glee there were 600,000 £ of them, they were held to make money tight, and would all be let out after three o'clock on the same day." ([H. Roy,] "The Theory of the Exchanges. The Bank Charter Act of 1844", Lond. 1864, p. 81.)

"Some very curious rumours are current of the means which have been resorted to in order to create a scarcity of Banknotes ... Questionable as it would seem, to suppose that any trick of the kind would ha adopted, the report has been so universal that it really deserves mention." ["The Observer", 24. April 1864.]

S. 153, Note 102
"The amount of sales <>Im Original: purchases> or contracts entered upon during the course of any given day, will not affect the quantity of money afloat on that particular day, but, in the vast majority of cases, will resolve themselves into multifarious drafts upon the quantity of money which may be afloat at subsequent dates more or less distant ... The bills granted or credits opened, to-day, need have no resemblance whatever, either in quantity, amount or duration, to those granted or entered upon to-morrow or next day, nay, many of to-day's bills and credits, when due, fall in with a mass of liabilities whose origins traverse a range of antecedent dates altogether indefinite, bills at 12, 6, 3 months or I often aggregating together to swell the common liabilities of one particular day ..." ("The Currency Theory Reviewed; a letter to the Scotch People. By a Banker in England", Edinburgh 1845, p. 29, 30 passim.)

S. 154, Note 104
"The Course of Trade being thus turned, from exchanging of goods for goods, or delivering and taking, to selling and paying, all the bargains ... are now stated upon the foot of a Price in Money." ([D. Defoe,] "An Essay upon Publick Credit", 3. ed., Lond. 1710, p. 8.)

S. 155, Note 105
"L'argent [...] est devenu le bourreau de toutes les choses." ... "alambic qui a fait évaporer une quantité effroyable de biens et de denrées pour faire ce fatal précis." "L'argent [...] déclare la guerre [...] à tout le genre humain." (Boisguillebert, "Dissertation sur la nature des richesses, de l'argent et des tributs", édit, Daire, "Économistes financiers", Paris 1843, t. I, p. 413, 419, 417, 418.)

S. 156, Note 107
"If there were occasion to raise 40 millions p.a., whether the same 6 millions (...) would suffice for such revolutions and circulations thereof as trade requires?", ... "I answer yes: for the expense being 40 millions, if the revolutions were in such short circles, viz, weekly, as happens among poor artizans and labourers, who receive and pay every Saturday, then 40/52 parts of 1 million of money would answer these ends; but if the circles ha quarterly, according to our custom of paying rent, and gathering taxes, then 10 millions were requisite. Wherefore supposing payments in general to be of a mixed circle between one week and 13, then add 10 millions to 40/52, the half of the which will be 51/2, so as if we have 51/2 mill., we have enough." (William Petty, "Political Anatomy of Ireland, 1672", edit. Lond. 1691, p. 13, 14.)

S. 158, Note 109
"An unfavourable balance of trade never arises but from a redundant currency ... The exportation of the coin is caused by its cheapness, and is not the effect, but the cause of an unfavourable balance."

"The Balance of Trade, if there be one, is not the cause of sending away the money out of a nation: but that proceeds from the difference of the value of Bullion in every country." (N. Barbon, l.c.p. 59.)

S. 159, Note 110a
"I would desire, indeed, no more convincing evidence of the competency of the machinery of the hoards in specie-paying countries to perform every necessary office of international adjustment, without any sensible aid from the general circulation, than the facility with which France, when but just recovering from the shock of a destructive foreign invasion, completed within the Space of 27 months the payment of her forced contribution of nearly 20 millions to the allied powers, and a considerable proportion of that sum in specie, without perceptible contraction or derangement of her domestic currency, or even any alarming fluctuation of her exchange." (Fullarton, l.c.p. 141)

S. 159, Note 111
"L'argent se partage entre les nations relativement au besoin qu'elles en ont ... étant toujours attiré par les productions." (Le Trosne, l.c.p .916.)

"The mines which are continually giving gold and silver, do give sufficient to supply such a needful balance to every nation." (J. Vanderlint, l.c.p. 40.)

S.159, Note 112
"Exchanges rise and fall every week, and at some particular times in the year run high against a nation, and at other times run as high on the contrary." (N. Barbon, l.c.p. 39.)

S. 160, Note 114
"What money is more than of absolute necessity for a Home Trade, is dead stock, and brings no profit to that country it's kept in, but as it is transported in Trade, as well as imported." (John Ballers, "Essays etc.", p. 13.)

"What if we have too much coin? We may malt down the heaviest and turn it into the splendour of plate, vessels or utensils of gold and silver; or send it out as a commodity, where the same is wanted or desired; or let it out at interest, where interest is high." (W.Petty, "Ouantulumcunque". p. 39.)

"Money is but the fat of the Body-Politick, whereof too much does as often hinder its agility, as too little makes it sick ... as fat lubricates the motion of the muscles, feeds in want of victuals, fills up uneven cavities, and beautifies the body; so doth money in the state quicken its actions, feeds from abroad in time of dearth et home; evens accounts ... and beautifies the whole; although" ...." more especially the particular persons that have it in plenty." (W. Petty, "Political Anatomy of Ireland", p. 14, 15)


S. 162, Note 2"
Avec de l'argent on achète des marchandises, et avec des marchandises on achète de l'argent." (Mercier de la Rivière, "L'ordre naturel et essentiel des sociétés politiques", p. 543.)

S. 163, Note 3
"When a thing is bought, in order to be sold again, the sum employed is called money advanced; when it is bought not to be sold, it may be said to be expended." (James Steuart, "Works etc.", edited by General Sir James Steuart, his son, Lond. 1805, v. I, p. 274.)

S. 165, Note 4
"On n'échange pas de l'argent contre de l'argent.' [Mercier de la Rivière, "L'ordre naturel et essentiel des sociétés politiques", p. 486.]

"Every transaction in which an individual buys produce in order to sell it again, is, in fact, a speculation." (MacCulloch, "A Dictionary, practical etc. of Commerce", London 1847, p. 1009.)

"Le commerce est un jeu" (...) "cet ce n'est pas avec des gueux qu'on peut gagner. Si l'on gagnait long-temps en tout avec tous, il faudrait rendre de bon accord les plus grandes parties du profit, pour recommencer le jeu." (Pinto, "Traité de la Circulation et du Crédit", Amsterdam 1771, p. 231.)

S. 168, Note 7
"Commodities" (...) "are not the terminating object of the trading capitalist ... money is his terminating object." (Th. Chalmers, "On Politic. Econ. etc.", 2nd edit., Glasgow 1832, p. 165, 166.)

S. 168, Note 8
"Il mercante non conta quasi per niente il lucro fatto, ma mira sempre al futuro." (A. Genovesi, "Lezioni di Economia Civile" (1765), Ausgabe der italienischen Ökonomen von Custodi, Parte Moderna, t. VIII, p. 139.)

S. 168, Note 10a
"Questo infinito che le cose non hanno in progresso, hanno in giro." (Galiani, [l.c.p. 156].)

S. 168, Note 11
"Ce n'est pas la matière qui fait le capital, mais la valeur de ces matières." (J. B. Say, "Traité d'Écon. Polit.), 3ème éd., Paris 1817, t. II, p. 429.)

S. 169, Note 12
"Currency (!) employed to productive purposes is capital." (Macleod, "The Theory and Practice of Banking", London 1855, v. I, c. 1, p. 55.)

"Capital is commodities." (James Mill, "Elements of Pol. Econ.", Lond. 1821, p. 74.)

S. 172, Note 16"
"Que l'une de ces deux valeurs soit argent, ou qu'elles soient toutes deux marchandises usuelles, rien de plus indifférent en soi." (Mercier de la Rivière, l.c.p. 543.)

S. 172, Note 17
"Ce ne sont pas les contractants qui prononcent sur la valeur; elle est décidée avant la convention." (Le Trosne, [l.c.]p. 906.)

S. 173, Note 19
"L'échange devient désavantageux pour l'une des parties, lorsque quelque chose étrangère vient diminuer ou exagérer le prix: alors l'égalité est blessée, mais la lésion procède de cette cause et non de l'échange." (Le Trosne, l.c.p. 904.)

S. 173, Note 20
"L'échange est de sa nature un contrat d'égalité qui se fait de valeur pour valeur égale. Il n'est donc pas un moyen de s'enrichir, puisque l'on donne autant que l'on reçoit." (Le Trosne, l.c.p. 903, 904.)

S. 174, Note 22
"Dans la société formée il n'y s pas de surabondant en aucun genre." [Le Trosne, l.c.]

S. 175, Note 24
"By the augmentation of the nominal value of the produce ... sellers not enriched ... since what they gain as sellers, they precisely expend in the quality of buyers." (H. Gray,] "The Essential Principles of the Wealth of Nations etc.", London 1797, p.66.)

S. 175, Note 25
"Si l'on est forcé de donner pour 18 livres une quantité de telle production qui en valait 24, lorsqu'on employera ce même argent à acheter, on aura également pour 18 l. ce que l'on payait 24." (Le Trosne, l.c.p. 897.)

S. 175f., Note 26
"Chaque vendeur ne peut donc parvenir à renchérir habituellement ses marchandises, qu'en se soumettant aussi à payer habituellement plus cher les marchandises des autres vendeurs; et par la même raison, chaque consommateur ne peut [...] payer habituellement moins cher ce qu'il achète, qu'en se soumettant aussi à une diminution semblable sur le prix des choses qu'il vend." (Merder de la Rivière, l.c.p. 555.)

S. 176, Note 28
"The idea of profits being paid by the consumers, is, assuredly, very absurd. Who are the consumers?" (G. Ramsay, "An Essay on the Distribution of Wealth", Edinburgh 1836, p. 183.)

S. 176f., Note 29
"When a man is in want of demand, does Mr. Malthus recommend him to pay some other person to take off his goods?" ("An Inquiry into those principles, respecting the Nature of Demand and the Necessity of Consumption, lately advocated by Mr. Malthus etc.", London 1821, p. 55.)

S. 178, Note 31
"L'échange qui se fait de deux valeurs égales n'augmente ni ne diminue la masse des valeurs subsistantes dans la société. L'échange de deux valeurs inégales ... ne change rien non plus à la somme des valeurs sociales, bien qu'il ajoute à la fortune de l'un ce qu'il ôte de la fortune de l'autre." (J. B. Say, l.c., t. Il, p.443, 444.)

"On n'achète des produits qu'avec des produits" (l.c., t. II, p. 438.)

"Les productions ne se paient qu'avec des productions." (Le Trosne, l.c.p. 899.)

S. 178, Note 32
"Exchange confers no value at all upon products." (F. Wayland, "The Elements of Pol. Econ.", Boston 1843, p. 168.)

S. 178, Note 33
"Under the rule of invariable equivalents commerce would be impossible." (G. Opdyke, "A Treatise on polit. Economy", New York 1851, p. 66-69.)

S. 179, Note 36
"Profit, in the usual condition of the market, is not made by exchanging. Had it not existed before, neither could it after that transaction." (Ramsay, l.c.p. 184.)

S. 181, Note 38
"In the form of money ... capital is productive of no profit." (Ricardo, "Princ. of Pol. Econ.", p. 267.)

S. 184, Note 42
"The value or worth of a man, is as of all other things, his price: that is to say, so much as would be given for the use of his power." (Th. Hobbes, "Leviathan", in "Works", edit. Molesworth, London 1839-1844, v. III, p. 76.)

 S. 186, Note 46
"Its" (labour's) "natural price ... consists in such a quantity of necessaries, and comforts of life, as, from the nature of the climate, and the habits of the country, are necessary to support the labourer, and to enable him to rear such a family as may preserve, in the market, an undiminished supply of labour," (R. Torrens, "An Essay on the external Corn Trade", London 1815, p. 62.)

S. 188, Note 49
"All labour is paid, after it has ceased." ("An Inquiry into those Principles, respecting the Nature of Demand etc,", p. 104.)

"Le crédit commercial a dû commencer au moment où l'ouvrier, premier artisan de la production, a pu, au moyen de ses économies, attendre le salaire de son travail jusqu'à la fin de la semaine, de la quinzaine, du mois, du trimestre etc.' (Ch. Ganilh, "Des Systèmes d'Écon, Polit.", 2ème édit., Paris 1821, t. II, p. 150.)

S. 188, Note 50
"L'ouvrier prête son industries", ... "de perdre son salaire ... l'ouvrier ne transmet rien de matériel." (Storch, "Cours d'Écon. Polit.", Pétersbourg 1815, t. II, p. 36, 37.)

S. 190, Note 51
"It is a common practice with the coal masters to pay once a month, and advance cash to their workmen at the end of each intermediate week. The cash is given in the shop" (..); "the men take it on one side and lay it out on the other." ("Children's Enployment Commission, III. Report", Lond, 1864, p. 38, n. 192.)


S. 193, Note 1
"The earth's spontaneous productions being in small quantity, and quite independent of man, appear, as it were, to be furnished by nature, in the same way as a small sum is given to a young man, in order to put him in a way of industry, and of making his fortune." (James Steuart, "Principles of Polit. Econ,", edit. Dublin 1770, v. I, p. 116.)

S. 202, Note 11
"Not only the labour applied immediately to commodities affects their value, but the labour also which is bestowed on the implements, tools, and buildings with which such labour is assisted." (Ricardo, l.c.p. 16.)

S. 205f., Note 13
"Cette façon d'imputer à une seule chose la valeur de plusieurs autres" (par exemple au lin la consommation du tisserand), "d'appliquer, pour ainsi dire, couche sur couche, plusieurs valeurs sur une seule, fait que celle-ci grossit d'autant ... Le terme d'addition peint très-bien la manière dont se forme le prix des ouvrages de main d'oeuvre; ce prix n'est qu'un total de plusieurs valeurs consommées et additionnées ensemble; or, additionner n'est pas multiplier." (Mercier de la Rivière, l.c.p. 599.)

S. 211, Note 17
"I am here shown tools that no man in his senses, with us, would allow a labourer, for whom he was paying wages, to be encumbered with; and the excessive weight and clumsiness of which, I would judge, would make work at least ten per cent greater than with those ordinarily used with us. And I am assured that, in the careless and clumsy way they must be used by the slaves, anything lighter or less rude could not be furnished them with good economy, and that such tools as we constantly give our labourers, and find our profit in giving them, would not last out a day in a Virginia cornfield - much lighter and more free from stones though it be than ours. So, too, when I ask why mules are so universally substituted for horses on the farm, the first reason given, and confessedly the moat conclusive one, is that horses cannot bear the treatment that they always must get from the negroes; horses are always soon foundered or crippled by them, while mules will bear cudgelling, or lose a meal or two now and then, and not be materially injured, and they do not take cold or get sick, if neglected or overworked; But I do not need to go further than to the window of the room in which I am writing, to see at almost any time, treatment of cattle that would insure the immediate discharge of the driver by almost any farmer owning them in the North." [Olmsted, "Seaboard Slave States", p. 46, 47.]

S. 212, Note 18
"The great class, who have nothing to give for food but ordinary labour, are the great bulk of the people." (James Mill in Art. "Colony", "Supplement to the Encyclop. Brit.", 1831.)

S. 213, Note 19
"Where reference is made to labour as a measure of value, it necessarily implies labour of one particular kind ... the proportion which the other kinds bear to it being easily ascertained." ([J. Cazenove,] "Outlines of Polit. Economy", London 1832, p. 22, 23.)

S. 215, Note 20
"Labour gives [...] a new creation for one extinguished." ("An Essay on the Polit. Econ. of Nations", London 1821, p. 13.)

S. 219, Note 21
"... that kind of wear which cannot be repaired from time to time, and which, in the case of a knife, would ultimately reduce it to a state in which the cutler would say of it, it is not worth a new blade."

"Mr. Ricardo speaks of the portion of the labour of the engineer in making stocking machines ..."

"Yet the total labour that produced each single pair of stockings ... includes the whole labour of the engineer, not a portion; for one machine makes many pairs, and none of those pairs could have been done without any part of the machine." ("Observations on certain verbal disputes in Pol. Econ., particularly relating to Value, and to Demand and Supply". London 1821, p. 54.)

S. 221, Note22a
"Of all the instruments of the farmer's trade, the labour of man ... is that on which he is most to rely for the re-payment of his capital. The other two - the working stock of the cattle, and the ... carts, ploughs, spades, and so forth - without a given portion of the first, are nothing at all." (Edmund Burke, "Thoughts and Details on Scarcity, originally presented to the Rt. Hon. W. Pitt in the Month of November 1795", edit. London 1800, p. 100.)

S. 222, Note 23
" ... the weather and the natural principle of decay do not suspend their operations because the steam-engine ceases to revolve." ["The Times" vom 26. November 1862.]

S. 222, Note 24
"Productive Consumption: where the consumption of a commodity is a part of the process of production ... In these instances there is no consumption of value." (S. P. Newman, l.c.p. 296.)

S. 222, Note 25
"It matters not in what form capital re-appears." ... "The various Kinds of food, clothing, and shelter, necessary for the existence and comfort of the human being, are also changed. They are consumed from time to time, and their value re-appears, in that new vigour imparted to his body and mind, forming fresh capital, to be employed again in the work of production." (F. Wayland, l.c.p. 31. 32.)

S. 224, Note 26
"Toutes les productions d'un même genre ne forment proprement qu'une masse, dont le prix se détermine en général et sans égard aux circonstances particulières." (Le Trosne, l.c.p. 893.)

S. 227, Note 26a
"If we reckon the value of the fixed capital employed as a part of the advances, we must reckon the remaining value of such capital at the end of the year as a part of the annual returns." (Malthus. "Princ. of Pol. Econ.", 2nd ed., London 1836, p. 269.)

S. 244, Note 34
... "the strong inclination [...] to represent net wealth as beneficial to the labouring class ... though it is evidently not on account of being net." (Th. Hopkins, "On Rent of Land etc.", London 1828, p. 126.)

S. 246, Note 35
"A day's labour is vague, it may be long or short." ("An Essay on Trade and Commerce, containing Observations on Taxation etc,", London 1770, p. 73.)

S. 247, Note 38
"An Hour's Labour lost in a day is a prodigious injury to a commercial state."

"There is a very great consumption of luxuries among the labouring poor of this kingdom; particularly among the manufacturing populace; by which they also consume their time, the most fatal of consumption." ("An Essay on Trade and Commerce etc.", p. 47 u. 153.)

S. 247, Note 39
"Si le manouvrier libre prend un instant de repos, l'économie sordide qui le suit des yeux avec inquiétude, prétend qu'il la vole." (N. Linguet, "Théorie des Loix Civiles etc.", London 1767, t. II, p. 466.)

S. 249, Note 41
"Those who labour ... in reality feed both the pensioners called the rich, and themselves." (Edmund Burke, l.c.p. 2, 3.)

S. 257, Note 55
"Fox full fraught in seeming sanctity
That feared an oath,
but like the devil would lie
That look'd like Lent, and had the holy leer
And durst not sin! before he said his prayer!"

S. 258, Note 64
"The cupidity of mill-owners, whose cruelties in pursuit of gain, have hardly been exceeded by those perpetrated by the Spaniards on the conquest of America, in the pursuit of gold." (John Wade, "History of the Middle and Working Classes", 3rd ed.. Lond. 1835, p. 114.)

S. 266, Note 82
... "that these factors of Blackwell Hall are a Publick Nuisance and Prejudice to the Clothing Trade and ought to be put down as a Nuisance." ("The Case of our English Wool etc.", London 1685, p. 6, 7.)

S. 272, Note 93
"Both in Staffordshire and in South Wales young girls and women are employed on the pit banks and on the coke heaps, not only by day, but also by night. This practice has been often noticed in Reports presented to Parliament, as being attended with great and notorious evils. These females, employed with the men, hardly distinguished from them in their dress, and begrimed with dirt and smoke, are exposed to the deterioration of character arising from the loss of self-respect which can hardly fail to follow from their unfeminine occupation." (["Children's Employment Commission. Third Report", 1864,] 194, p. XXVI.)

S. 281, Note 105
"We have given in our previous reports the statements of several experienced manufacturers to the affect that over-hours ... certainly tend prematurely to exhaust the working power of the men." (["Children's Employment Commission. Fourth Report", 1865,] 64, p. XIII.)

S. 287, Note 116
"No child under the age of 12 years shall be employed in any manufacturing establishment more than 10 hours in one day." ("General Statutes of Massachusetts", ch, 60, §3.)

"Labour performed during a period of 10 hours on any day in all cotton, woollen, silk, paper, glass, and flax factories, or in manufactories of iron and brass, shall be considered a legal day's labour. And be it enacted, that hereafter no minor engaged in any factory shall be holden or required to work more than 10 hours in any day, or 60 hours in any week; and that thereafter no minor shall be admitted as a worker under the age of 10 years in any factory within this state." ("State of New Jersey, An act to limit the hours of labour etc.", § I und 2. Gesetz vom 18. März 1851.)

"No minor who has attained the age of 12 years, and is under the age of 15 years, shall be employed in any manufacturing establishment more than 11 hours in any one day, nor before 5 o'clock in the morning, nor after 71/2 in the evening." ("Revised Statutes of the State of Rhode Island etc,", ch. 139, § 23, 1st July 1857.)

S. 292, Note 127
"...and not an asylum for the poor, where they are to be plentifully fed, warmly and decently clothed, and where they do but little work." ["An Essay on Trade and Commerce etc,". p. 242, 243.]

S. 293, Note 129
"They especially objected to work beyond the 12 hours per day, because the law which fixed those hours is the only good which remains to them of the legislation of the Republic." ("Rep. of Insp. of Fact. 31st Octob. 1855", p. 80.)

S. 299, Note 141
"As a reduction in their hours of work would cause a large number" (of children) "to be employed, it was thought that the additional supply of children from eight to nine years of age, would meet the increased demand," (["Rep. etc. for 30th Sept. 1844",] p.13.)

S. 309, Note 170
"The present law" (of 1850) "was a compromise whereby the employed surrendered the benefit of the Ten Hours' Act for the advantage of one uniform period for the commencement and termination of the labour of those whose labour is restricted." ("Reports etc, for 30th April 1852", p. 14.)

S. 312, Note 181
"The Printworks' Act is admitted to be a failure, both with reference to its educational and protective provisions." ("Reports etc. for 31st Oct. 1862", p. 52.)

S. 315, Note 186
"The conduct of each of these classes" (capitalists and workman) "has been the result of the relative situation in which they have been placed." ("Reports etc. for 31st Oct, 1848", p.113.)

S. 316, Note 187
"The employments placed under restriction were connected with the manufacture of textile fabrics by the aid of steam or water power. There were two conditions to which an employment must be subject to cause it to be inspected, viz, the use of steam or water power, and the manufacture of certain specified fibres." ("Reports etc. for 31st October 1864", p.8.)

S. 316, Note 189
"The Acts of last Session" (1864) "... embrace a diversity of occupations the customs in which differ greatly, and the use of mechanical power to give motion to machinery is no longer one of the elements necessary, as formerly, to constitute in legal phrase a Factory." ("Reports etc. for 31st Oct. 1864", p.8.)

S. 318, Note 195
"These objections" (...) "must succumb before the broad principle of the rights of labour ... there is a time when the master's right in his workman's labour ceases and his time becomes his own, even if there was no exhaustion in the question," ("Reports etc. for 31st Oct. 1862", p. 54.)

S. 319, Note 198
"These proceedings" (...) "have afforded, moreover, incontrovertible proof of the fallacy of the assertion so often advanced, that operatives need no protection, but may be considered as free agents in the disposal of the only property they possess, the labour of their hands, and the sweat of their brows." ("Reports etc. for 30th April 1850", p. 45.)

"Free labour, if so it may be termed, even in a free country requires the strong arm of the law to protect it." ("Reports etc. for 31st Oct. 1864", p. 34.)

"To permit, which is tantamount to compelling ... to work 14 hours a day with or without meals etc.", ("Reports etc. for 30th April 1863", p. 40.)

S. 320, Note 201
"A still greater boon is, the distinction at last made clear between the worker's own time and his master's. The worker knows now when that which he sells is ended, and when his own begins, and by possessing a sure foreknowledge of this, is enabled to pre-arrange his own minutes for his own purposes." (["Reports of the Inspectors of factories etc. for 31st October 1864",] p. 52.)

"By making them masters of their own time, they" (...) "have given them a moral energy which is directing them to the eventual possession of political power." (l.c.p. 47.)

"... the Master had no time for anything but money: the servant had no time for anything but labour." (l.c.p.48.)

S. 325f. Note 204
"The labour, that is the economic time, of society, is a given portion, say ten hours a day of a million of people or ten million hours ... Capital has its boundary of increase. The boundary may, at any given period, be attained in the actual extent of economic time employed." ("An Essay on the Political Economy of Nations", London 1821, p. 47, 49.)

S. 326f., Nota 205
"The farmer cannot rely on his own labour; and if be does, I will maintain, that he is a loser by it. His employment should be, a general attention to the whole: his thrasher must be watched, or be will soon lose his wages in corn not thrashed out; his mowers, reapers etc. must be looked after; be must constantly go round his fences; he must see there is no neglect; which would be the case if he was confined to any one spot." ([J. Arbuthnot,] "An Enquiry into the Connection between the Price of Provisions, and the Size of Farms etc." By a Farmer, London 1773, p. 12.)


S. 332, Note 1
"... so as to live, labour, and generate". (William Petty, "Political Anatomy of Ireland", 1672, p. 64.)

"The Price of Labour is always constituted of the Price of necessaries." ... "whenever ... the labouring man's wages will not, suitably to his low rank and station, as a labouring man, support such s family as is often the lot of many of them to have." (J. Vanderlint, l.c.p. 15.)

"Le simple ouvrier, qui n'a que ses bras et son industrie, n'a rien qu'autant qu'il parvient à vendre à d'autres se peine ... En tout genre de travail il doit arriver et il arrive en effet, que le salaire de l'ouvrier se borne à ce qui lui est nécessaire pour lui procurer la subsistance." (Turgot, "Réflexions etc., [in] "Œuvres", éd. Daire, t. I, p. 10.)

"The price of the necessaries of life is, in fact, the cost of producing labour." (Malthus, "Inquiry into etc. Rent", Lond. 1815, p. 48, Note.)

S. 333f, Note 2
"Quando si perfezionano le arti, che non è altro che la scoperta di nuove vie, onde si possa compiere una manufattura con meno gente o (che è lo stesso) in minor tempo di prima". (Galiani, l.c.p. 158, 159.)

"L'économie sur les frais de production ne peut être autre chose que l'économie sur la quantité de travail employé pour produire." (Sismondi, "Études etc.", t. I, p. 22.)

S. 337, Note 3
"A man's profit does not depend upon his command of the produce of other men's labour, but upon his command of labour itself. If he can sell his goods at a higher price, while his workmen's wages remain unaltered, he is clearly benefited ... A smaller proportion of what he produces is sufficient to put that labour into motion, and a larger proportion consequently remains for himself." ([J. Cazenove,] "Outlines of Polit. Econ.", London 1832, p. 49, 50.)

S. 338, Note 4
"If my neighbour by doing much with little labour, can sell cheap, I must contrive to sell as cheap as he. So that every art, trade, or engine, doing work with labour of fewer hands, and consequently cheaper, begets in others a kind of necessity and emulation, either of using the same art, trade, or engine, or of inventing something like it, that every man may be upon the square, that no man may be able to undersell his neighbour." ("The Advantages of the East-India Trade to England", Lond. 1720. p. 67.)

S. 338f., Note 5
"In whatever proportion the expenses of a labourer are diminished, in the same proportion will his wages be diminished, if the restraints upon industry are at the same time taken off." ("Considerations concerning taking off the Bounty on Coin exported etc.", Lond, 1753, p. 7.)

"The interest of trade requires, that coin and all provisions should be as cheap as possible; for whatever makes them dear, must make labour dear also ... in all countries, where industry is not restrained, the price of provisions must affect the Price of Labour. This will always be diminished when the necessaries of life grow cheaper." (l.c.p. 3.)

"Wages are decreased in the same proportion as the powers of production increase. Machinery, it is true, cheapens the necessaries of life, but it also cheapens the labourer too." ("A Prize Essay on the comparative merits of Competition and Cooperation", London 1834, p. 27.)

S. 339, Note 7
"Ces spéculateurs si économes du travail des ouvriers qu'il faudrait qu'ils payassent." (J. N. Bidaut, "Du Monopole qui s'établit dans les arts industriels et le commerces", Paris 1828, p. 13.)

"The employer will be always on the stretch to economise time and labour," (Dugald Stewart, "Works", ed. by Sir W. Hamilton, v. VIII, Edinburgh 1855. "Lectures on Polit. Econ.", p. 318.)

"Their" (the capitalists') "interest is that the productive powers of the labourers they employ should be the greatest possible. On promoting that power their attention is fixed and almost exclusively fixed." (R. Jones, l.c., Lecture III.)

S. 342, Note 8
"Unquestionably, there is a great deal of difference between the value of one man's labour and that of another, from strength, dexterity and honest application. But I am quite sure, from my best observation, that any given five men will, in their total, afford a proportion of labour equal to any other five within the period of life I have stated; that is, that among such five men there will be one possessing all the qualifications of a good workman, one bad, and the other three middling, and approximating to the first and the last. So that in so small a platoon as that of even five, you will find the full complement of all that five men can earn. (E. Burke, l.c.p. 15, 16.)

S. 345, Note 11
"There are numerous operations of so simple a kind as not to admit a division into parts, which cannot be performed without the cooperation of many pairs of bands. For instance the lifting of a large tree on a wain ... every thing in short, which cannot be done unless a great many pairs of hands help each other in the same undivided employenent, and at the same time." (E. C. Wakefield, "A View of the Art of Colonisation", London 1849, p. 168.)

S. 345, Note 11a
"As one man cannot, and 10 men must strain, to lift a tun of weight, yet one hundred men can do it only by the strength of a finger of each of them." (John Bellers, "Proposals for raising a colledge of industry", London 1696, p. 21.)

S. 345f. Note 12
"There is also" (...) an advantage in the proportion of servants, which will not easily be understood but by practical men; for it is natural to say, as 1 is to 4, so are 3 : 12: but this will not hold good in practice; for in harvest-time and many other operations which require that kind of despatch, by the throwing many hands together, the work is better, and more expeditiously done: f. i., in harvest, 2 drivers, 2 loaders, 2 pitchers, 2 rakers, and the rest at the rick, or in the barn, will despatch double the work, that the same number of hands would do, if divided into different gangs, on different farms," ([J. Arbuthnot,] "An Enquiry into the Connection between the present price of provisions and the size of farms." By a Farmer, London 1773, p. 7, 8.)

S. 346, Note 14
"On doit encore remarquer que cette division partielle du travail peut se faire quand même les ouvriers sont occupés d'une même besogne. Des maçons par exemple, occupés de faire passer de mains en mains des briques à un échafaudage supérieur, font tous la même besogne, et pourtant il existe parmi eux une espèce de division de travail, qui consiste en ce que chacun d'eux fait passer la brique par un espace donné, et que tous ensemble la font parvenir beaucoup plus promptement à l'endroit marqué qu'ils ne feraient si chacun d'eux portait sa brique séparément jusqu'à l'échafaudage supérieur." (F. Skarbek, "Théorie des richesses sociales", 2ème éd., Paris 1839, t. I. p. 97, 98.)

S. 347, Note 15
"Est-il question d'exécuter un travail compliqué, plusieurs choses doivent être faites simultanément. L'un en fait une pendant que l'autre en fait une autre, et tous contribuent à l'effet qu'un seul homme n'aurait pu produire. L'un rame pendant que l'autre tient la gouvernail, et qu'un troisième jette le filet ou harponne le poisson, et la pêche a un succès impossible sans ce concours." (Destutt de Tracy, l.c.p. 78.)

S. 347, Note 16
"The doing of it" (...)"at the critical juncture, is of so much the greater consequence." ([J. Arbuthnot,] "An Inquiry into the Connection between the present price etc,", p 7.)

S. 347f., Note 17
"The next evil is one which one would scarcely expect to find in a country which exports more labour than any other in the world, with the exception perhaps of China and England - the impossibility of procuring s sufficient number of hands to clean the cotton. The consequence of this is that large quantities of the crop are left unpicked, while another portion is gathered from the ground, when it has fallen, and is of course discoloured and partially rotted, so that for want of labour at the proper season the cultivator is actually forced to submit to the loss of a large part of that crop for which England is so anxiously looking." ("Bengal Hurkaru, Bi-Monthly Overland Summary of News", 22nd July 1861.)

S. 348, Note 18
"In the progress of culture all, and perhaps more than all the capital and labour which once loosely occupied 500 acres, are now concentrated for the more complete tillage of 100." Obgleich "relatively to the amount of capital and labour employed, space is concentrated, it is an enlarged sphere of production, as compared to the sphere of production formerly occupied or worked upon by one single, independent agent of production." (R. Jones, "An Essay on the Distribution of Wealth", "On Rent", London 1831, p.191.)

S. 349, Note 19
"La forza di ciascuno uomo è minima, ma la riunione delle minime forze forma una forzs totale maggiore anche della somma delle forte medesime fino a che le forze par essere riunite possono diminuere il tempo ed accrescere lo spazio della loro azione." (G. R. Carli, Note zu P. Verri, l.c., t. XV, p.196.)

S. 350, Note 20
"Profits ... is the sole end of trade." (J. Vanderlint, l.c.p. 11.)

S. 351, Note 21
" ... the first result was a sudden decrease in waste, the men not seeing why they should waste their own property any more than any other master's, and waste is perhaps, next to bad debts, the greatest source of manufacturing loss." ["Spectator" vom 26. Mai 1866.]

S. 352, Note 21a
"The peasant proprietor" (...), "appropriating the whole produce of his soil <bei Cairnes: toil>, needs no other stimulus to exertion. Superintendence is here completely dispensed with." (Cairnes, l.c.p.48, 49.)

S. 352, Note 22
"Why do large undertakings in the manufacturing way ruin private industry, but by coming nearer to the simplicity of slaves?" ("Princ. of Pol. Econ.", London 1767, v. I, p. 167, 168.)

S. 355, Note 25
"Whether the united skill, industry and emulation of many together on the same work be not the way to advance it? And whether it had been otherwise possible for England, to have carried on her Woollen Manufacture to so great a perfection?" (Berkeley, "The Querist", Lond. 1750, p. 56, § 521.)

S. 357, Note 26
"... est toute patriarcale; elle emploie beaucoup de femmes et d'enfants, mais sans les épuiser ni les corrompre; elle les laisse dans leurs belles vallées de la Drôme, du Var, de l'Isère, de Vaucluse, pour y élever des vers et dévider leurs cocons; [...] jamais elle n'entre dans une véritable fabrique. Pour être aussi bien observé ... le principe de la division du travail, s'y revêt d'un caractère spécial. Il y a bien des dévîdeuses, des moulineurs, des teinturiers, des encolleurs, puis des tisserands; mais ils ne sont pas réunis dans un même établissement, ne dépendent pas d'un même maître; tous ils sont indépendants." (A. Blanqui, "Cours d'Écon. Industrielles, Recueilli par A. Blaise, Paris 1838-1839, p. 79.)

S. 359, Note 27
"The more any manufacture of much variety shall be distributed and assigned to different artists, the same must needs be better done and with greater expedition, with less loss of time and labour." ("The Advantages of the East India Trade", Lond. 1720, p. 71 .)

S. 359, Note 28
"Easy labour is [...] transmitted skill." (Th. Hodgskin, l.c.p. 125.)

S. 364, Note 34
"In so close a cohabitation of the People, the carriage must needs be less." ("The Advantages of the East India Trade", p. 106.)

S.364, Note 35
"The isolation of the different stages of manufacture consequent upon the employment of the manual labour adds immensely to the cost of production, the loss mainly arising from the mere removals from one process to another." ("The Industry of Nations", Lond. 1855, part II, p. 200.)

S. 365, Note 36
"It" (the division of labour) "produces also an economy of time, by separating the work into its different branches, all of which may be carried on into execution at the same moment ... By carrying on all the different processes at once, which an individual must have executed separately, it becomes possible to produce a multitude of pins for instance completely finished in the same time as a single pin might have been either cut or pointed." (Dugald Stewart, l.c.p. 319.)

S. 365, Note 37
"They more variety of artists to every manufacture ... the greater the order and regularity of every work, the same must needs be done in less time, the labour must be less." ("The Advantages etc,", p. 68.)

S. 370, Note 47
"They cannot well neglect their work; when they once begin, they must go on; they are just the same as parts of a machine." ("Child. Empl. Comm. Fourth Report", 1865, p. 247.)

S. 371, Note 49
"Each handicraftsman, being ... enabled to perfect himself by practice in one point, became ... a cheaper workman." (Ure, l.c.p. 19.)

S. 371f., Note 50
"Nous rencontrons chez les peuples parvenus à un certain degré de civilisation trois genres de divisions d'industrie: la première, que nous nommons générale, amène la distinction des producteurs en agriculteurs, manufacturiers et commerçans, elle se rapporte aux trois principales branches d'industrie nationale; la seconde, qu'on pourrait appeler spéciale, est la division de chaque genre d'industrie en espèces ... la troisième division d'industrie, celle enfin qu'on devrait qualifier de division de la besogne ou du travail proprement dit, est celle qui s'établit dans les arts et les métiers séparés ... qui s'établit dans la plupart des manufactures et des ateliers." (Skarbek, l.c.p. 84. 85.)

S. 373, Note 52
"There is a certain density of population which is convenient, both for social intercourse, and for that combination of powers by which the produce of labour is increased." (James Mill, l.c.p. 50.)

"As the number of labourers increases, the productive power of society augments in the compound ratio of that increase, multiplied by the effects of the division of labour." (Th. Hodgskin, l.c.p. 120.)

S. 374, Note 55
"Whether the Woollen Manufacture of England is not divided into several parts or branches appropriated to particular places, where they are only or principally manufactured; fine cloths in Somersetshire, coarse in Yorkshire, long ells at Exeter, soies at Sudbury, crapes at Norwich, linseys at Kendal, blankets at Whitney, and so forth!" (Berkeley, "The Querist", 1750, § 520.)

S. 375, Note 57
"...those employed in every different branch of the work can often be collected into the same workhouse, and placed at once under the view the spectator. In those great manufactures(!), on the contrary, which are destined to supply the great wants of the great body of the people, every different branch of the work employs so great a number of workmen, that it is impossible to collect them all into the same workhouse ... the division is not near so obvious." (A. Smith, "Wealth of Nations", b. I, ch. I.)

"Observe the accomodation of the most common artificer or day labourer in a civilized and thriving country etc." [I. c.]

S. 376, Note 58
"There is no longer anything which we can call the natural reward of individual labour. Each labourer produces only some part of a whole, and each part, having no value or utility of itself, there is nothing on which the labourer can seize, and say: it is my product, this I will keep for myself." ([Th. Hodgskin,] "Labour defended against the claims of Capital", Lond. 1825, p. 25.)

S. 378, Note 59
"On peut ... établir en règle générale, que moins l'autorité préside à la division du travail dans l'intérieur de la société, plus la division du travail se développe dans l'intérieur de l'atelier, et plus elle y est soumise à l'autorité d'un seul. Ainsi l'autorité dans l'atelier et celle dans la société, par rapport à la division du travail, sont en raison inverse l'une de l'autre." (Karl Marx, l.c.p. 130, 131.)

S. 379, Note 61
"Under this simple form ... the inhabitants of the country have lived since time immemorial. The boundaries of the villages have been but seldom altered; and though the villages themselves have been sometimes injured, and even desolated by war, famine, and disease, the same name, the same limits, the same interests, and even the same families, have continued for ages. The inhabitants give themselves no trouble about the breaking up and division of kingdoms; while the village remains entire, they care not to what power it is transferred or to what sovereign it devolves; its internal economy remains unchanged." (Th. Stamford Raffles, late Lieut. Gov. of Java, "The History of Java". Lond, 1817, v. I, p.285.)

S. 381, Note 62
... "La concentration des instruments de production et la division du travail sont aussi inséparables l'une de l'autre que le sont, dans le régime politique, la concentration des pouvoirs publics et la division des intérêts privée." (Karl Marx, l.c.p. 134.)

S. 381, Note 63
"... living automatons ... employed in the details of the work." ([Dugald Stewart, "Lectures on Political Economy", in "Works", v. VIII,] p. 318.)

S. 382, Note 65
"L'ouvrier qui porte dans ses bras tout un métier, peut aller partout exercer son industrie et trouver des moyens de subsister: l'autre" (...) "n'est qu'un accessoire qui, séparé de ses confrères, n'a plus ni capacité, ni indépendance, et qui se trouve forcé d'accepter la loi qu'on juge à propos de lui imposer." (Storch, l.c., édit. Petersb. 1815, t. I, p. 204.)

S. 382, Note 66
"The former may have gained what the other has lost." [A. Ferguson, l.c.p. 281.]

S. 384, Note 71
"and thinking itself, in this age of separations, may become a peculiar craft." [A. Ferguson, l.c.p. 281.]

S. 386f., Note 77
"Ciascuno prova coll' esperienza, che applicando la mano e l'ingegno sempre allo stesso genere di opere e di produtti, egli più facili, più abbondanti e migliori ne traca resultati, di quello che se ciascuno isolatamente le cose tutte a se necessarie soltanto facesse ... Dividendosi in tal maniera par la comune e privata utilità gli uomini invarie classe e condizioni." (Cesare Baccaria, "Elementi di Econ. Publica", ed. Custodi, Part. Moderna, t. Xl. p. 28.)

"The whole argument, to prove society natural" (...) "is taken from the second book of Plato's republic." [James Harris, "Dialogue concerning Happiness", London 1741, abgedruckt in 'Three Treatises etc.", 3.ed" Lond. 1772.]

S. 387, Note 78
"Allos gar t alloisin anhr epiterpetai ergois."[Homer, Odysses, XIV, 228.j

"Allos allw ep ergo kardihn iainetai."

S. 387, Note 79
"Swmasi te etoimoteroi oi autourgoi tvn anqrwpwn h crhmasi polemein" (Thuk. 1. I. c. 141). "... par wn gar to eu, para toutwn kai to autarkes."

S. 387f., Note 80
"Ou gar oimai eqelei to prattomenon thn tou prattontos scolhn perimenein, all anagkh ton prattonta tw prattomenw epakolouqein mh en parergon merei. - Anagkh. - Ek dh toutwn pleiw te ekasta gignetai kai kallion kai raon, otan eis en kata jusin kai en kaisw, scolhn twn allwn agwn, pratth." ([Plato,] De Republica", II, 2. ed., Baiter, Orelli etc.)

... "in the various operations of singeing, washing, bleaching, mangling, calendering, and dyeing. none of them can be stopped at a given moment without risk of damage ... to enforce the same dinner hour for all the workpeople might occasionally subject valuable goods to the risk of danger by incomplete operations."

S. 398, Note 99
"In the early days of textile manufactures, the locality of the factory depended upon the existence of a stream having a sufficient fall to turn a water wheel; and, although the establishment of the water mills was the commencement of the breaking up of the domestic system of manufacture, yet the mills necessarily situated upon streams, and frequently at considerable distances the one from the other, formed part of a rural rather than an urban system; and it was not until the introduction of the steam-power as a substitute for the stream, that factories were congregated in towns and localities where the coal and water required for the production of steam were found in sufficient quantities. The steam-engine is the parent of manufacturing towns." (A. Redgrave in "Reports of the Insp. of Fact. 30th April 1860", p. 36.)

S. 400f. Note 101
"... The application of power to the process of combing wool ... extensively in operation since the introduction of the 'combing machine', especially Lister's ... undoubtedly had the effect of throwing a very large number of men out of work. Wool was formerly combed by hand, most frequently in the cottage of the comber. It is now very generally combed in the factory, and hand labour is superseded, except in some particular kinds of work, in which hand-combed wool is still preferred. Many of the handcombers found employment in the factories, but the produce of the handcomber bears so small a proportion to that of the machine, that the employment of a very large number of combers has passed away." ("Rep. of Insp. of Fact. for 31st Oct. 1856", p. 16.)

S. 401, Note 102
"The principle of the factory system, then, is to substitute ... the partition of a process into its essential constituents, for the division or gradation of labour among artisans." (Ure, l.c.p. 20.)

S. 406, Note 105
..."Simple and outwardly unimportant as this appendage to lathes may appear, it is not, we believe, averring too much to state, that its influence in improving and extending the use of machinery has been as great as that produced by Watt's improvements of the steam-engine itself. Its introduction went at once to perfect all machinery, to cheapen it, and to stimulate invention and improvement," ["The Industry of Nations", Lond. 1855, Part II, p. 239.]

S. 409, Note 109
"Adam Smith nowhere undervalues the services which the natural agents and machinery perform for us, but he very justly distinguishes the nature of the value which they add to commodities ... as they perform their work gratuitously, [...] the assistance which they afford us, adds nothing to value in exchange." (Ricardo, l.c.p. 336, 337.)

S. 411, Note 111
"Il est possible" (...) "de parvenir à des connaissances fort utiles à la vie, et qu'au lieu de cette philosophie spéculative qu'on enseigne dans les écoles, on en peut trouver une pratique, par laquelle, connaissant la force et les actions du feu, de l'eau, de l'air, des astres, et de tous les autres corps qui nous environnent, aussi distinctement que nous connaissons les divers métiers de nos artisans, nous les pourrions employer en même façon à tous les usages auxquels ils sont propres, et ainsi nous rendre comme maîtres et possesseurs de la nature" ... "contribuer au perfectionnement de la vie humaine." [Descartes, "Discours de la Méthode".]

S. 414, Note 116
"These mute agents" (...) "are always the produce of much less labour than that which they displace, even when they are of the same money value." (Ricardo, l.c.p. 40.)

S. 415, Note 117
"Employers of labour would not unnecessarily retain two sets of children under thirteen ... In fact one class of manufacturers, the spinners of woollen yarn, now rarely employ children under thirteen years of ages, i.e. half-times. They have introduced improved and new machinery of various kinds which altogether supersedes [...] the employment of children" (...); "f.i.: I will mention one process as an illustration of this diminution in the number of children, wherein, by the addition of an apparatus, called a piecing machine, to existing machines, the work of six or four half-times, according to the peculiarity of each machine, can be performed by one young person" (...)"...the half-time system" ... "the invention of the piecing machine." ("Reports of Insp. of Fact. for 31st Oct. 1858", [p. 42, 43].)

S. 415, Note 118
"Machinery ... can frequently not be employed until labour (er meint Wages) rises." (Ricardo, l.c.p. 479.)

S. 417, Note 121
"The numerical increase of labourers has been great, through the growing substitution of female for male, and above all of childish for adult, labour. Three girls of 13, at wages from of 6 sh. to 8 sh. a week, have replaced the one man of mature age, of wages varying from 18 sh. to 45 sh." (Th. de Quincey, "The Logic of Politic, Econ.", Lond, 1844, Note zu p. 147.)

S. 418, Note 122
"Infant labour has been called into aid ... even to work for their own daily bread. Without strength to endure such disproportionate toil, without instruction to guide their future life, they have been thrown into a situation physically and morally polluted. [...] The Jewish historian has remarked upon the overthrow of Jerusalem by Titus, that is was no wonder it should have been destroyed, with such a signal destruction, when an inhuman mother sacrificed her own offspring to satisfy the cravings of absolute hunger." ("Public Economy Concentrated", Carlisle 1833, p. 66.)

S. 420, Note 128
"It" (...) "...showed, moreover, that while, with the described circumstances, infants perish under the neglect and mismanagement which their mothers' occupations imply, the mothers become to a grievous extent denaturalized towards their offspring - commonly not troubling themselves much at the death, and even sometimes ... taking direct measures to ensure it." [Sixth Report on Public Health", Lond. 1864, p. 34.]

S. 421, Note 133
"To push the sale of opiate ... is the great aim of some enterprising wholesale merchants. By druggists it is considered the leading article." (l.c.p. 459.)

S. 425, Note 143
"Since the general introduction of expensive machinery, human nature has been forced far beyond its average strength." (Robert Owen, "Observations on the effects of the manufacturing system", 2nd ed., London 1817, [p. 16].)

S. 425, Note 144
"It is evident [...] that the long hours of work were brought about by the circumstance of so great a number of destitute children being supplied from different parts of the country, that the masters were independent of the hands, and that, having once established the custom by means of the miserable materials they had procured in this way, they could impose it on their neighbours with the greater facility." (J. Fielden, "The Curse of the Factory System", Lond. 1836, p. 11.)

S. 426, Note 145
"Occasion ... injury to the delicate moving parts of metallic mechanism by inaction." (Ure, l.c.p. 28.)

S. 426, Note 146
"It" (... "allowance for deterioration of machinery") "is also intended to cover the loss which is constantly arising from the superseding of machines before they are worn out by others of a new and better construction." ["Times", 26. Nov. 1862.]

S. 427, Note 149
"It is self-evident, that, amid the ebbings and flowings of the market, and the alternate expansions and contractions of demand, occasions will constantly recur, in which the manufacturer may employ additional floating capital without employing additional fixed capital ... if additional quantities of raw material can be worked up without incurring an additional expense for buildings and machinery." (R. Torrens. "On Wages and Combination", Lond. 1834, p. 64.)

S. 428, Note 152
"The great proportion of fixed to circulating capital ... makes long hours of work desirable."

... "the motives to long hours of work will become greater, as the only means by which a large proportion of fixed capital can be made profitable." ([Senior, "Letters on the Factory Act", Lond. 1837,] p.11-14.)

S. 434, Note 163
"We work with more spirit, we have the reward ever before us of getting away sooner at night, and one active and cheerful spirit pervades the whole mill, from the youngest piecer to the oldest hand, and we can greatly help each other." ["Reports of the Inspectors of Factories for the Quarter ending 30th September 1844; and from 1st October 1844, to 30th April 1845", p. 21.]

S. 444, Note 183
"The physical appearance of the cotton operatives is unquestionably improved. This I attribute ... as to the men, to outdoor labour on public work." ("Rep. of. Insp. of Fact. Oct, 1863", p. 59.)

S. 445, Note 186
"Un homme s'use plus vite en surveillant quinze heures par jour l'évolution uniforme d'un mécanisme, qu'en exerçant dans le même espace de temps, sa force physique. Ce travail de surveillance, qui servirait peut-être d'utile gymnastique à l'intelligence, s'il n'était pas trop prolongé, détruit à la longue, par son excès, et l'intelligence et le corps même.' (G. de Molinari, "Études Économiques", Paris 1846, [p. 49].)

S. 451, Note 193
"The masters and the men are unhappily in a perpetual war with each other. The invariable object of the former is to get their work done as cheap as possibly; and they do not fail to employ every artifice to this purpose, whilst the latter are equally attentive to every occasion of distressing their masters into a compliance with higher demands." ([N. Forster,] "An Inquiry into the causes of the Present High Prices of Provisions", 1767, p. 61, 62.)

S. 451, Note 194
"In hac urbes, (...) "ante hos viginti circiter annos instrumentum quidam invenerunt textorium, quo solus quis plus panni et facilius conficere poterat, quam plures aequali tempore. Hinc turbae ortae et querulae textorum, tandemque usus hujus inistrumenti a magistratu prohibitus etc." (Boxhorn, "Inst. Pol.", 1663.)

S. 453, Note 196
"... Je considère donc les machines comme des moyens d'augmenter (virtuellement) le nombre des gens industrieux qu'on n'est pas obligé de nourrir... En quoi l'effet d'une machine diffère-t-il de celui de nouveaux habitants?" ([James Steuart,] Fzs. Übers., t. I, I.I, ch. XIX.)

"Machinery can seldom be used with success to abrigde the labour of an individual; more time would be loost in its construction than could be saved by its application. It is only really useful when it acts on great masses, when a single machine can assist the work of thousands. It is accordingly in the most populous countries, where there are most idle men, that it is most abundant ... It is not called into use by a scarcity of men, but by the facility with which they can be brought to work in masses." (Piercy Ravenstone, "Thoughts on the Funding System and its Effects", Lond. 1824, p. 45.)

S. 454, Note 197
"Machinery and labour are in constant competition". (Ricardo, l.c.p. 479.)

S. 454f., Note 198
"The Rev, Mr. Turner was in 1827 rector of Wilmslow, in Cheshire, a manufacturing district. The questions of the Committee on Emigration, and Mr. Turner's answers show how the competition of human labour is maintained against machinery. Question: 'Has not the use of the power-loom superseded the use of the handloom?' Answer: 'Undoubtedly; it would have superseded them much more than it has done, if the hand-loom weavers were not enabled to submit to a reduction of wages.' Question: 'But in submitting he has accepted wages which are insufficient to support him, and looks to parochial contribution as the remainder of his support?' Answer: 'Yes, and in fact the competition between the hand-loom and the power-loom is maintained out of the poor-rates.' Thus degrading pauperism or expatriation, is the benefit which the industrious receive from the introduction of machinery, to be reduced from the respectable and in some degree independent mechanic, to the cringing wretch who lives on the debasing bread of charity. This they call a temporary inconvenience," ("A Prize Essay on the comparative merits of Competition and Co-operation", Lond, 1834, p. 29.)

S. 455, Note 199
"The same cause which may increase the revenue of the country" (...)" may at the same time render the population redundant and deteriorate the condition of the labourer," (Ricardo, l.c.p. 469.)

S. 471, Note 226
"Les classes condamnées à produire et à consommer diminuent, et les classes qui dirigent le travail, qui soulagent, consolent et éclairent toute la population, se multiplient ... et s'approprient tous les bienfaits qui résultent de la diminution des frais du travail, de l'abondance des productions et du bon marché des consommations. Dans cette direction, l'espèce humaine s'élève aux plus hautes conceptions du génie, pénètre dans les profondeurs mystérieuses de la religion, établit les principes salutaires de la morale" (... de "s'approprier tous les bienfaits etc."), "les lois tutélaires de la liberté" ( ... liberté pour "les classes condamnées à produire"?) "et du pouvoir, de l'obéissance et de la justice, du devoir et de l'humanité." ("Des Systèmes d'Économie Politique etc." Par M. Ch. Ganilh, 2ème éd., Paris 1821, t. I, p.224, cf. ib. p. 212.)

S. 497, Note 269
"The rental of premises required for work rooms seems the element which ultimately determines the point, and consequently it is in the metropolis, that the old system of giving work out to small employers and families has been longest retained, and earliest returned to." (["Children's Employment Commission, II. Report",] p. 83, n. 123.)

S. 498, Note 275
"Tendency to factory system." (l.c.p. LXVII.)

"The whole employment is at this time in a state of transition, and is undergoing the same change as that effected in the lace trade, weaving etc." (l.c., n. 405.)

"A complete Revolution." (l.c.p. XLVI, n. 318.)

S.499, Note 276
"To keep up our quantity, we have gone extensively into machines wrought by unskilled labour, and every day convinces us that we can produce a greater quantity than by the old method." ("Reports of Insp. of Fact., 31st Oct, 1865", p. 13.)

S. 501f., Note 283
"... work towards the end of the week is generally much increased in duration, in consequence of the habit of the men of idling on Monday and occasionally during a part or the whole of Tuesday also." ("Child. Empl. Comm., III. Rep.", p. VI.)

"The little masters generally have very irregular hours. They lose 2 or 3 days, and then work all night to make it up... They always employ their own children if they have any." (l.c.p. VII.)

"The want of regularity in coming to work, encouraged by the possibility and practice of making up for this by working longer hours." (l.c.p. XVIII.)

"Enormous loss of time in Birmingham ... idling part of the time, slaving the rest." (l.c.p. XI.)

S. 502, Note 284
"The extension of the railway system is said to have contributed greatly to this custom of giving sudden orders, and the consequent hurry, neglect of mealtimes, and late hours of the workpeople." (["Children's Employment Commission, IV. Report",] p. XXXI.)

S. 503, Note 287
"With respect to the loss of trade by the non-completion of shipping orders in time, I remember that this was the pet argument of the factory masters in 1832 und 1833. Nothing that can be advanced now on this subject could have the force that it had then, before steam had halved all distances and established new regulations for transit. It quite failed at that time of proof when put to the test, and again it will certainly fail should it have to be tried." ("Reports of Insp. of Fact., 31st Oct, 1862", p. 54, 55.)

S. 503f., Note 289
... : "The uncertainty of fashions does increase necessitous Poor. It has two great mischiefs in it: 1st) The journeymen are miserable in winter for want of work, the mercers and masterweavers not daring to lay out their stocks to keep the journeymen imployed before the spring comes and they know what the fashion will then be; 2dly) In the spring the journeymen are not sufficient, but the master-weavers must draw in many prentices, that they may supply the trade of the kingdom in a quarter or half a year, which robs the plow of hands, drains the country of labourers, and in a great part stocks the city with beggars, and starves some in winter that are ashamed to beg." ([John Bellers,] "Essays about the Poor, Manufactures etc.", p. 9.)

S. 504, Note 293
"This could be obviated at the expense of an enlargement of the works under the pressure of a General Act of Parliament." (["Children's Employment Commission, V. Report",] p. X, n. 38.)

S. 507, Note 297
"Factory education is compulsory, and it is a condition of labour." ("Reports of Insp. of Fact., 31st Oct. 1865", p. III.)

S. 508, Note 301
"The boy is a mere substitute for steam power." ("Child. Empl. Comm., V. Rep. 1866", p.114, n. 6.)

S. 511, Note 307
"You take my life
When you do take the means whereby I live." (Shakespeare)

S. 513, Note 309
"An idle learning being little better than the Learning of Idleness ... Bodily Labour, it's a primitive institution of God ... Labour being as proper for the bodies health, as eating is for its living; for what pains a man saves by Ease, he will find in Disease... labour adds oyl to the lamp of life when thinking inflames it ...A childish silly employ" ( ...)"leaves the children's minds silly."([John Bellers,] "Proposals for raising a Colledge of Industry of all useful Trades and Husbandry", Lond. 1696, p. 12, 14, 16, 18.)

S. 514, Note 312
"Factory labour may be as pure and as excellent [...] as domestic labour, and perhaps more so." ("Reports of Insp. of Fact., 31st Oct. 1865", p.129.)

S. 528, Note 324
"You divide the People into two hostile camps of clownish boors and emasculated dwarfs. Good heavens! a nation divided into agricultural and commercial interests calling itself sane, nay styling itself enlightened and civilized, not only in spite of, but in consequence of this monstrous and unnatural division." (David Urquhart, l.c.p. 119.)

S. 529, Note 325
"... That the produce of land increases caeteris paribus in a diminishing ratio to the increase of the labourers employed", (...) "'is the universal law of agricultural industry'..,." (J. St. Mill, "Principles of Political Economy", vol. I, p. 17.]


S. 534, Note 1
"The very existence of the master-capitalists as a distinct class is dependent on the productiveness of industry." (Ramsay, l.c.p.206.)

"If each man's labour were but enough to produce his own food, there could be no property." (Ravenstone. l.c.p. 14.)

S. 535, Note 2
"Among the wild Indians in America, almost every thing is the labourer's, 99 parts of an hundred are to be put upon the account of Labour: In England, perhaps the labourer has not 2/3." ("The Advantages of the East India Trade etc.", p. 72, 73.)

S. 536, Note 4
"The first" (natural wealth), "as it is most noble and advantageous, so doth it make the people careless, proud, and given to all excesses; whereas the second enforceth vigilancy, literature, arts and policy." ("England's Treasure by Foreign Trade. Or the Balance of our Foreign Trade is the Rule of our Treasure. Written by Thomas Mun, of London, Merchant, and now published for the common good by his son John Mun", Lond, 1669, p. 181, 182.)

"Nor can I conceive a greater curse upon a body of people, than to be thrown upon a spot of land, where the productions for subsistence and food were, in great measure, spontaneous, and the climate required or admitted little care for raiment and covering ... there may be an extreme on the other side. A soil incapable of produce by labour is quite as bad as a soil that produces plentifully without any labour." ([N. Forster,] "An Inquiry into the Present High Price of Provisions", Lond. 1767, p. 10.)

S. 537, Note 5
"Le solstice est le moment de l'année où commence la crue du Nil, et celui que les Égyptiens ont dû observer avec le plus d'attention ... C'était cette année tropique qu'il leur importait de marquer pour se diriger dans leurs opérations agricoles. Ils durent donc chercher dans le ciel un signe apparent de son retour." (Cuvier, "Discours sur les révolutions du globe", éd. Hoefer, Paris 1863, p. 141.)

S. 537f., Note 7
"There are no two countries, which furnish an equal number of the necessaries of life in equal plenty, and with the same quantity of labour. Men's wants increase or diminish with the severity or temperateness of the climate they live in; consequently the proportion of trade which the inhabitants of different countries are obliged to carry on through necessity, cannot be the same, nor is it practicable to ascertain the degree of variation farther than by the Degrees of Heat and Cold; from whence one may make this general conclusion, that the quantity of labour required for a certain number of people is greatest in cold climates, and least in hot ones; for in the former men not only want more clothes, but the earth more cultivating than in the latter." ([J. Massie,] "An Essay an the Governing Causes of the Natural Rata of Interest", Lond. 1750, p. 59.)

S. 538, Note 8
"Chaque travail doit" (...) "laisser un excédant." (Proudhon)

S. 546, Note 11
"When an alteration takes place in the productiveness of industry, and that either more or less is produced by a given quantity of labour and capital, the proportion of wages may obviously vary, whilst the quantity, which that proportion represents, remains the same, or the quantity may vary, whilst the proportion remains the same." ([J. Cazenove,] "Outlines of Political Economy etc,", p. 67.)

S. 548, Note 12
"All things being equal, the English manufacturer can turn out a considerably larger amount of work in a given time than a foreign manufacturer, so much as to counterbalance the difference of the working days, between 60 hours a week here and 72 or 80 elsewhere." ("Reports of Insp. of Fact, for 31st Oct, 1855", p. 65.)

S. 549, Note 13
"There are compensating circumstances ... which the working of the Ten Hours' Act has brought to light." ("Reports of Insp. of Fact. for 31st October 1848", p. 7.)

S. 549, Note 14
"The amount of labour which a man had undergone in the course of 24 hours might be approximately arrived at by an examination of the chymical changes which had taken place in his body, changed forms in matter indicating the anterior exercise of dynamic force." (Grove, "On the Correlation of Physical Forces", [p. 308, 309].)

S. 551, Note 15
"Corn and Labour rarely march quite abreast; but there is an obvious limit, beyond which they cannot be separated. With regard to the unusual exertions made by the labouring classes in periods of dearness, which produce the fail of wages noticed in the evidence" (nämlich vor den Parliamentary Committees of Inquiry 1814/15), "they are most meritorious in the individuals, and certainly favour the growth of capital. But no man of humanity could wish to see them constant and unremitted. They are most admirable as a temporary relief; but if they were constantly in action, effects of a similar kind would result from them, as from the population of a country being pushed to the very extreme limits of its food." (Malthus, "Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent", Lond. 1815, p. 48, Note.)

S. 551f, Note 16
"A principal cause of the increase of capital, during the war, proceeded from the greater exertions, and perhaps the greater privations of the labouring classes, the most numerous in every society. More women and children were compelled, by necessitous circumstances, to enter upon laborious occupations; end former workmen were, from the same cause, obliged to devote e greater portion of their time to increase production." ("Essays on Political Econ. in which are illustrated the Principal Causes of the Present National Distress", London 1830, p. 248.)

S. 556, Note 20
... "une richesse indépendante et disponible, qu'il" (...) "n'a point achetée et qu'il vend." (Turgot, "Réflexions sur la Formation et la Distribution des Richesses", p. 11.)


S. 557, Note 21
"Mr. Ricardo, ingeniously enough, avoids a difficulty which, on a first view, threatens to encumber his doctrine, that value depends on the quantity of labour employed in production. If this principle is rigidly adhered to, it follows that the value of labour depends on the quantity of labour employed in producing it - which is evidently absurd. By a dexterous turn, therefore, Mr. Ricardo makes the value of labour depend on the quantity of labour required to produce wages; or, to give him the benefit of his own language, he maintains, that the value of labour is to be estimated by the quantity of labour required to produce wages; by which he means the quantity of labour required to produce the money or commodities given to the labourer. This is similar to saying, that the value of cloth is estimated, not by the quantity of labour bestowed on its production, but by the quantity of labour bestowed on the production of the silver, for which the cloth is exchanged." ([S. Bailey,] "A Critical Dissertation on the Nature etc. of Value", p. 50, 51.)

S. 558, Note 22
"If you call labour a commodity, it is not like a commodity which is first produced in order to exchange, and then brought to market where it must exchange with other commodities according to the respective quantities of each which there may be in the market at the time; labour is created at the moment it is brought to market; nay, it is brought to market before it is created." ("Observations on some verbal disputes etc.", p. 75, 76.)

S. 558, Note 23
"Treating Labour as a commodity, and Capital, the produce of labour, as another, then, if the values of those two commodities were regulated by equal quantities of labour, a given amount of labour would ... exchange for that quantity of capital which had been produced by the same amount of labour; antecedent labour [...] would ... exchange for the same amount as present labour, [...] But the value of labour, in relation to other commodities ... is determined not by equal quantities of labour." (E. G. Wakefield in s. Edit. von A. Smiths, "Wealth of Nations", Lond, 1835. v. I, p. 230. 231, Note.)

S. 558 f., Note 24
"Il a fallu convenir" (...) "que toutes les fois qu'il échangerait du travail fait contre du travail à faire, le dernier" (le capitaliste) "aurait une valeur supérieure au premier" (le travailleur). (Simonde (i.e. Sismondi), "De la Richesse Commerciale", Genève 1803, t. I, p. 37.)

S. 559, Note 25
"Labour, the exclusive standard of value ... the creator of all wealth, no commodity." (Th. Hodgskin, l.c.p. 186.)

S. 559f., Note 26
"Le travail est dit valoir, non pas en tant que marchandise lui-même, mais en vue des valeurs qu'on suppose renfermées puissanciellement en lui. Le valeur du travail est une expression figurée etc." ... "Dans le travail-marchandise, qui est d'une réalité effrayante, il ne voit qu'une ellipse grammaticale. Donc toute la société actuelle, fondée sur le travail marchandise, est désormais fondée sur une licence poétique, sur une expression figurée. La société veut-elle 'éliminer tous les inconvénients' qui la travaillent, eh bien! qu'elle élimine les termes malsonnants, qu'elle change de langage, et pour cela elle n'a qu'a s'adresser à l'Académie pour lui demander une nouvelle édition de son dictionnaire." (K. Marx, "Misère de la Philosophie", p. 34, 35.)

"C'est ce qu'une chose vaut". "La valeur d'une chose exprimée en monnaie." Und warum hat "le travail de la terre ... une valeur? Parce qu'on y met un prix." (J. B. Say]

S. 566, Note 31
"The price of labour is the sum paid for a given quantity of labour." (Sir Edward West, "Price of Corn and Wages of Labour", Lond. 1826, p. 67.)

S. 566. Note 32
"The wages of labour [...] depend upon the price of labour and the quantity of labour performed ... An increase in the wages of labour does not necessarily imply an enhancement of the price of labour. From fuller employment, and greater exertions, the wages of labour may be considerably increased, while the price of labour may continue the same." (West, l.c.p. 67. 68 u. 112.)

S. 567, Note 33
"It is the quantity of labour and not the price of it" (...). "that is determined by the price of provisions and other necessaries: reduce the price of necessaries very low, and of course you reduce the quantity of labour in proportion ... Master-manufacturers know, that there are various ways of raising and falling the price of labour, besides that of altering its nominal amount <im Original: value>." ["Essay on Trade and Commerce p. 48 u. 61.]

"The labourer [...] is principally interested in the amount of wages." ([N. W. Senior, "Three Lectures on the Rate of Wages", Lond. 1830.] p. 15.)

S. 570, Note 39
"It is a very notable thing, too, that where long hours are the rule, small wages are also so." ("Rep. of Insp. of Fact.. 31st Oct. 1863". p. 9.)

"The work which obtains the scanty pittance of food is for the most part excessively prolonged." ("Public Health. Sixth Rep. 1863", p. 15.)

S. 571, Note 42
"... he would very shortly be replaced by somebody who would work any length of time and thus be thrown out of employment." ("Reports of Insp. of Fact., 31st Oct. 1848". Evidence, p. 39. n. 58.)

"If [...] one man performs the work of two ... the rate of profits will generally be raised ... in consequence of the additional supply of labour having diminished its price." (Senior, l.c.p. 15.)

S. 574, Note 45
"The system of piece-work illustrates an epoch in the history of the working man; it is half-way between the position of the mere day-labourer, depending upon the will of the capitalist, and the cooperative artisan, who in the not distant future promises to combine the artisan and the capitalist in his own person. Piece-workers are in fact their own masters, even whilst working upon the capital of the employer." (John Watts, "Trade Societies and Strikes, Machinery and Cooperative Societies", Manchester 1865, p. 52, 53.)

S. 575, Note 47
"A factory employs 400 people, the half of which work by the piece, and have a direct interest in working longer hours. The other 200 are paid by the day, work equally long with the others, and get no more money for their overtime ... The work of these 200 people for half an hour a day is equal to one person's work for 50 hours, or 5/6 of one person's labour in a week, and is a positive gain to the employer." ("Reports of Insp. of Fact., 31st October 1860", p. 9.)

"Overworking, to a very considerable extent, still prevails; and, in most instances, with that security against detection and punishment which the law itself affords. I have in many former reports [...] shown ... the injury to all the workpeople who are not employed on piece-work, but receive weekly wages." (Leonard Horner in "Reports of Insp. of Fact., 30th April 1859", p. 8, 9.)

S. 576, Note 48
"Le salaire peut se mesurer de deux manières; ou sur la durée du travail, ou sur son produit." ("Abrégé élémentaire des principes de l'Écon. Pol.", Paris 1796, p. 32.) Verfasser dieser anonymen Schrift: G. Garnier.

S. 576f., Note 49
"So much weight of [...] cotton is delivered to him" (the spinner), "and he has to return by a certain time, in lieu of it, a given weight of twist or yarn, of a certain degree of fineness, and he is paid so much per pound for all that he so returns. If his work is defective in quality, the penalty fails on him; if less in quantity than the minimum fixed for a given time, he is dismissed and an abler operative procured." (Ure, l.c.p. 316, 317.)

S.577, Note 50
"It is when work passes through several hands, each of which is to take a share of profits, while only the last does the work, that the pay which reaches the workwoman in miserably disproportioned." ("Child. Empl. Comm. II. Rep.", p. LXX. n. 424.)

S. 577, Note 51
"It would [...] be a great improvement to the system of piece-work, if all the men employed on a job were partners in the contract, each according to his abilities, instead of one man being interested in overworking his fellows for his own benefit." (["Watts, "Trade Societies and Strikes ...",] p. 53.)

S. 578, Note 52
"All those who are paid by piece-work ... profit by the transgression of the legal limits of work. This observation as to the willingness to work overtime, is especially applicable to the women employed as weavers and reelers." ("Rep. of Insp. of Fact., 30th April 1858", p. 9.)

S. 578. Note 53
"Where the work in any trade is paid for by the piece at so much per job ... wages may very materially differ in amount ... But in work by the day there is generally an uniform rate ... recognized by both employer and employed as the standard of wages for the general run of workmen in the trade." (Dunning, l.c.p. 17.)


S. 579f., Note 55
"Combien de fois n'avons-nous pas vu, dans certains ateliers, embaucher, beaucoup plus d'ouvriers que ne le demandait le travail à mettre en main? Souvent, dans la prévision d'un travail aléatoire, quelquefois même imaginaire, on admet des ouvriers: comme on les paie aux pièces, on se dit qu'on ne court aucun risque, perce que toutes les pertes de temps seront à la charge des inoccupés." (H. Gregoir, "Les Typographes devant le Tribunal Correctionnel de Bruxelles", Bruxelles 1865, p. 9.)

S. 581, Note 60
"The productive power of his spinning-machine is accurately measured, and the rate of pay for work done with it decreases with, though not as, the increase of its productive power." (Ure, l.c.p. 317.)

"By this increase, the productive power of the machine will be augmented one-fifth. When this event happens, the spinner will not be paid at the same rate for work done as he was before; but as that rate will not be diminished in the ratio of one-fifth, the improvement will augment his money earnings for any given number of hours' work ... The foregoing statement requires a certain modification ... the spinner has to pay something for additional juvenile aid out of his additional sixpence, [...] accompanied by displacing a portion of adults", (l.c.p. 320. 321.)

S. 582, Note 62
... "to prosecute for intimidation the agents of the Carpet Weavers Trades Union, Bright's partners had introduced new machinery which would turn out 240 yards of carpet in the time and with the labour (!) previously required to produce 160 yards. The workmen had no claim whatever to share in the profits made by the investment of their employer's capital in mechanical improvements. Accordingly, Messrs. Bright proposed to lower the rate of pay from 11/2 d. per yard to 1 d., leaving the earnings of the men exactly the same as before for the same labour. But there was a nominal reduction, of which the operatives, it is asserted, hat not fair warning before hand." ["The Standard", London, vom 26. Oktober 1861.]

S. 583, Note 64
"It is not accurate to say that wages" (...) "are increased, because they purchase more of a cheaper article." (David Buchanan in seiner Ausgabe von A Smiths "Wealth etc.", 1814, v. I, p. 417, Note.)

5.584f., Note 65
"It deserves likewise to be remarked, that although the apparent price of labour is usually lower in poor countries, where the produce of the soil, and grain in general, is cheap; yet it is in fact for the most part really higher than in other countries. For it is not the wages that is given to the labourer per day that constitutes the real price of labour, although it is its apparent price. The real price is that which a certain quantity of work performed actually costs the employer; and considered in this light, labour ii in almost all cases cheaper in rich countries then in those that are poorer, although the price of grain, and other provisions, is usually much lower in the last than in the first ... Labour estimated by the day, is much lower in Scotland than in England; ... Labour by the piece is generally cheaper in England." (James Anderson, "Observations on the means of exciting a spirit of National Industry etc.", Edinb. 1777, p. 350, 351.)

"Labour being dearer in Ireland than it is in England ... because the wages are so much lower." (Nr. 2074 in "Royal Commission on Railways, Minutes", 1867.)


S. 592, Note 2
"Wages as well as profits are to be considered each of them as really a portion of the finished product." (Ramsay, l.c.p. 142.)

S. 593, Note 3
"When capital is employed in advancing to the workman his wages, it adds nothing to the funds for the maintenance of labour." (Cazenove in Note zu seiner ed. von Malthus' "Definitions in Polit. Econ.", London 1853, p.22.)

S. 594, Note 4a
"Though the manufacturer" (i. e. Manufakturarbeiter) "has his wages advanced to him by his master, he in reality costs him no expense, the value of these wages being generally reserved <Bei Smith: restored>, together with a profit, in the improved value of the subject upon which his labour is bestowed." (A. Smith l.c., Book II, ch. III, p. 355.)

S. 596, Note 6
"It is true indeed that the first introducing a manufacture emploies many poor, but they cease not to be so, and the continuance of it makes many." ("Reasons for a limited Exportation of Wool", Lond. 1677, p. 19.)

"The farmer now absurdly asserts, that he keeps the poor. They are indeed kept in misery." ("Reasons for the late Increase of the Poor Rates: or a comparative view of the prices of labour sod provisions". Lond. 1777, p. 31.)

S. 599, Note 13
"That letter [...] might be looked upon as the manifesto of the manufacturers." (Ferrand, Motion über den cotton famine, Sitzung des H. o. C. vom 27. April 1863.)

S. 603, Note 17
L'ouvrier demandait de la subsistance pour vivre, le chef demandait du travail pour gagner." (Sismondi, l.c.p. 91.)

S. 605, Note 21
"Accumulation of Capital: the employment of a portion of revenue as capital," (Malthus, "Definitions etc.", ed, Cazenove. p. 11.)

"Conversion of revenue into Capital," (Malthus, "Princ. of Pol. Econ.", 2nd ed., Lond. 1836, p. 320.)

S. 608, Note 21c
"Le travail primitif auquel son capital a dû sa naissance." (Sismondi, l.c. éd. Paris, t. I, p. 109.)

S. 614, Note 25
"Capital", viz: "[...] accumulated wealth [...] employed with a view to profit," (Malthus l.c.[p. 262].)

"Capital ... consists of wealth saved from revenue, and used with a view to profit." (R. Jones, "Text-book of lectures on the Political Economy of Nations", Hertford 1852, p. 16.)

S. 614, Note 26
"The possessors of surplus produce or capital." ("The Source and Remedy of the National Difficulties. A Latter to Lord John Russell", Lond. 1821, [p. 4.])

S. 614, Note 27
"Capital, with compound interest on every portion of capital saved, is so all engrossing, that all the wealth in the world from which income is derived, has long ago become the interest on capital." (London "Economist", 19. July 1851.)

S. 615, Note 28
"No political economist of the present day can by saving mean mere hoarding: and beyond this contracted and insufficient <Bei Malthus: inefficient> proceeding, no use of the term in reference to the national wealth can well be imagined, but that which must arise from a different application of what is saved, founded upon a real distinction between the different kinds of labour maintained by it." (Malthus, l.c.p. 38, 39.)

S. 615, Note 29
"Accumulation of stocks ... non-exchange ... overproduction," (Th. Corbet, l.c.p. 104.)

S. 616, Note 31
"The capital itself in the long run becomes entirely wages, and when replaced by the sale of produce becomes wages again." [J.. St. Mill]

S. 617, Note 32
"Il est impossible de résoudre le prix nécessaire dans ses éléments les plus simples." (Storch, l.c., Petersb. Édit. 1815, t. II. p. 141, Note.)

S. 621, Note 37
"Les épargnes des riches se font aux dépens des pauvres."

S. 623 f., Note 43
"No one ... will sow his wheat, f.i., and allow it to remain a twelvemonth in the ground, or leave his wine in a cellar for years, instead of consuming these things or their equivalent at once - unless he expects to acquire additional value etc." (Scrope, "Polit. Econ.", edit. von A. Potter, New-York 1841, p. 133.)

S. 624, Note 44
"La privation que s'impose le capitaliste, en prêtant" (...) "ses instruments de production au travailleur au lieu d'en consacrer la valeur à son propre usage, en la transformant en objets d'utilité ou d'agrément." (G. de Molinari, l.c.p. 36.)

S. 624, Note 45
"La conservation d'un capital exige ... un effort constant pour résister à la tentation de le consommer." (Courcelle-Seneuil. l.c.p. 20.)

S. 624f., Note 46
"The particular classes of income which yield the most abundantly to the progress of national capital, change at different stages of their progress, and are therefore entirely different in nations occupying different positions in that progress ... Profits... unimportant source of accumulation, compared with wages and rents, in the earlier stages of society ... When a considerable advance in the powers of national industry has actually taken place, profits rise into comparative importance as a source of accumulation." (Richard Jones, "Textbook etc.", p. 16, 21.)

S. 633f., Note 60
"Quant à la difficulté qu'élève Mr. Ricardo en disant que, per des procédés mieux entendus, un million de personnes peuvent produire deux fois, trois fois autant de richesses, sans produire plus de valeurs, cette difficulté n'est pas une lorsque l'on considère, ainsi qu'on le doit, la production comme un échange dans lequel on donne les services productifs de son travail, de sa terre, et de ses capitaux, pour obtenir des produits. C'est par le moyen de ces services productifs que nous acquérons tous les produits qui sont au monde. [...] Or ... nous sommes d'autant plus riches, nos services productifs ont d'autant plus de valeur, qu'ils obtiennent dans l'échange appelé production, une plus grande quantité de choses utiles." (J. B. Say. "Lettres à M. Malthus", Paris 1820, p. 168, 169.)

"... parce que la concurrence les" (les producteurs) "oblige à donner les produits pour ce qu'ils leur coûtent." [l.c. p. 169.]

"Telle est, monsieur, la doctrine bien liée sans laquelle il est impossible, je le déclare, d'expliquer les plus grandes difficultés de l'économie politique et notamment, comment il se peut qu'une nation soit plus riche lorsque ses produits diminuent de valeur, quoique la richesse soit de la valeur." (l.c.p. 170.)

"Si vous trouvez une physionomie de paradoxe à toutes ces propositions, voyez les choses qu'elles expriment, et j'ose croire qu'elles vous paraîtront fort simples et fort raisonnables." ... ("An Inquiry into those Principles respecting the Nature of Demand etc.", p. 110.)

S. 642, Note 70
"A égalité d'oppression des masses, plus un pays a de prolétaires et plus il est riche." (Colins, "L'Économie Politique, Source des Révolutions et des Utopies prétendues Socialistes", Paris 1857, t. III, p. 331.)

S. 644, Note 75
"Socios collegiorum maritos esse non permittimus, sed statim postquam quis uxorem duxerit, socius collegii desinat esse." ("Reports of Cambridge University Commission", p. 172.)

S. 660, Note 79
"The demand for labour depends on the increase of circulating and not of fixed capital. Were it true that the proportion between these two sorts of capital is the same at all times, and in all circumstances, then, indeed, it follows that the number of labourers employed is in proportion to the wealth of the state. But such a proposition has not the semblance of probability. As arts are cultivated, and civilisation is extended, fixed capital bears a larger and larger proportion to circulating capital. The amount of fixed capital employed in the production of a piece of British muslin is at less a hundred, probably a thousand times greater than that employed in a similar piece of Indian muslin. And the proportion of circulating capital is a hundred or thousand times less ... the whole of the annual savings [...], added to the fixed capital [...], would have no effect in increasing the demand for labour." (John Barton, "Observations on the circumstances which influence the Condition of the Labouring Classes of Society", Land. 1817, p.16, 17.)

"The same cause which may increase the net revenue of the country may at the same time render the population redundant, and deteriorate the condition of the labourer." (Ricardo, l.c.p. 469.)

... "the demand" (for labour) "will b" in a diminishing ratio" (l.c. p. 480. Note.)

"The amount of capital devoted to the maintenance of labour may vary, independently of any changes in the whole amount of capital ... Great fluctuations in the amount of employment, and great suffering may [...] become more frequent as capital itself becomes more plentiful." (Richard Jones, "An Introductory Lecture on Pol. Econ.", Lond. 1833, p. 12.)

"Demand" (for labour) "will rise ... not in proportion to the accumulation of the general capital ... Every augmentation, therefore, to the national stock destined for reproduction, comes, in the progress of society, to have less and less influence upon the condition of the labourer." (Ramsay, l.c.p. 90, 91.)

S. 665 f., Note 83
"The adult operatives at this mill have been asked to work from 12 to 13 hours per day, while there are hundreds who are compelled to be idle who would willingly work partial time, in order to maintain their families and save their brethren from a premature grave through being overworked." ("Reports of Insp. of Fact., 31st Oct. 1863", p. 8.)

S. 671, Note 85
"It does not appear absolutely true to say that demand will always produce supply just at the moment when it is needed. It has not done so with labour, for much machinery has been idle last year for want of hands." ("Report of Insp. of Fact, for 31st Oct. 1866", p. 81.)

S. 672 f., Note 87
"Poverty [...] seems [...] favourable to generation." (A. Smith)

"Iddio fa che gli uomini che esercitano mestieri di prima utilità nascono abbondantemente." (Galiani. l.c.p. 78.)

"Misery, up to the extreme point of famine and pestilence, instead of checking, tends to increase population." (S. Laing, "National Distress", 1844, p. 69.)

S. 675, Note 88
"De jour en jour il devient donc plus clair que les rapports de production dans lesquels se meut la bourgeoisie n'ont pas un caractère un, un caractère simple, mais un caractère de duplicité; que dans les mêmes rapports dans lesquels se produit la richesse, la misère se produit aussi; que dans les mêmes rapports dans lesquels il y a développement des forces productives, il y a une force productive de répression; que ces rapports ne produisent la richesse bourgeoise, c'est à dire la richesse de la classe bourgeoise, qu'en anéantissant continuellement la richesse des membres intégrants de cette classe et en produisant un prolétariat toujours croissant." (Karl Marx, "Misère de la Philosophies", p. 116.)


S. 675f., Note 89
"In luoco di progettar sistemi inutili per la felicità de' popoli, mi limiterò a investigare la ragione della loro infelicità." [G. Ortes, "Della Economia Nazionale libri sei 1874", bei Custodi, Parte Moderna, t. XXI, p. 32.]

S. 682, Note 105
"Voilà l'homme en effet. Il va du blanc au noir.
Il condamne au matin ses sentiments du soir.
Importun à tout autre, à soi même incommode,
Il change à tous moments d'esprit comme de mode." ([Boileau, zitiert bei H. Roy,] "The Theory of Exchanges etc.", Lond. 1764, p. 135.)

S. 684, Note 108
"... those employed in every different branch of the work can often be collected into the same workhouse."

S. 702, Note 140
"The nominal price of day-labour is at present no more than about four times, or at most five times higher than it was in the year 1514. But the price of corn is Seven times, and of flesh-meat and raiment about fifteen times higher. [...] So far, therefore, has the price of labour been even from advancing in proportion to the increase in the expences of living, that it does not appear that it bears now half the proportion to those expences that it did bear." [Dr. Richard Price, "Observations on Reversionary Payments", 6. ed. By W. Morgan, Lond. 1803, v. II, p. 159.]

S. 721, Note 169
"The heaven-born employment of the hind gives dignity even to his position. He is not a Slave, but a soldier of peace, and deserves his place in married man's quarters, to be provided by the landlord, who bas claimed a power of enforced labour similar to that the country demands of a military soldier. He no more receives market-price for his work than does a soldier. Like the soldier he is caught young, ignorant, knowing only his own trade and his own locality. Early marriage and the operation of the various laws of settlement affect the one as enlistment and the Mutiny Act affect the other." (Dr. Hunter, l.c.p. 132.)


S. 722, Note 170
"Mal vêtus, logés dans des trous,
Sous les combles, dans les décombres,
Nous vivons avec les hiboux
Et les larrons, amis des ombres." [Pierre Dupont, "Ouvriers", 1846.]

S. 745, Note 191
"La paysan y (en Silésie) est serf." "On n'a pas pu encore engager les Silésiens au partage des communes, tandis que dans la nouvelle Marche, in n'y a guère de village où ce partage ne soit exécuté avec le plus grand succès." (Mirabeau, "De la Monarchie Prussienne", Londres 1788, t. II, p. 125, 126.)

S. 748, Note 194
"The quantity of land assigned" (...) "would now be judged too great for labourers, and rather as likely to convert them into small farmers." (George Roberts, "The Social History of the People of the Southern Counties of England in past centuries", Lond. 1856, p. 184.)

S. 749, Note 195
"The right of the poor to share in the tithe, is established by the tenour of ancient statutes." (Tuckett, I. c., v. II, p. 804, 805.)

S. 751, Note 199
"I most lament the loss of our yeomanry, that set of men, who really kept up the independence of this nation; and sorry I am to see their lands now in the hands of monopolizing lords, tenanted out to small farmers, who hold their leases on such conditions as to be little better than vassals ready to attend a summons on every mischievous occasion." [J. Arbuthnot, "Inquiry into the connection between the present price of provisions and of farms", Lond. 1773, p. 139.]

S. 751, Note 200
"The large grant of lands in Ireland to Lady Orkney, in 1695, is a public instance of the king's affection, and the lady's influence ... Lady Orkney's endearing offices, are supposed to have been - foeda labiorum ministeria." ("The charakter and behaviour of King William, Sunderland etc. as represented in Original Letters to the Duke of Shrewsbury from Somers, Halifax, Oxford, Secretary Vernon etc.")

S. 755, Note 212
"Working men are driven from their cottages, and forced into the towns to seek for employment; - but then a larger surplus is obtained, and thus Capital is augmented." ([R. B. Seeley,] "The Perils of the Nation", 2nd ed., Lond. 1843, p. XIV.)


S. 760f., Note 220
"La lin fait donc une des grandes richesses du cultivateur dans le Nord de l'Allemagne. Malheureusement pour l'espèce humaine, ce n'est qu'une ressource contre la misère, et non un moyen de bien-ètre. Les impôts directs, les corvées, les servitudes de tout genre, écrasent le cultivateur allemand, qui paie encore des impôts indirects dans tout ce qu'il achète ... et pour comble de ruine, il n'ose pas vendre ses productions où et comme il le veut; il n'ose pas acheter ce dont il a besoin aux marchands qui pourraient le lui livrer au meilleur prix. Toutes cas causes le ruinent insensiblement, et il se trouverait hors d'état de payer les impôts directs à l'échéance sans la filerie; elle lui offre une ressource, en occupant utilement sa femme, ces enfants, ses servants, ses valets, et lui-même: mais quelle pénible vie, même aidée de ce secours! En été, il travaille comme un forçat au labourage et à la récolte; il se couche à 9 heures et se lève à deux, pour suffire aux travaux; en hiver il devrait réparer ses forces par un plus grand repos; mais il manquera de grains pour le pain et les semailles, s'il se défait des denrées qu'il faudrait vendre pour payer les impôts. Il faut donc filer pour suppléer à ce vide ... il faut y apporter la plus grande assiduité. Aussi le paysan se couche-t-il en hiver à minuit, une heure, et se lève à cinq ou six; ou bien il se couche à neuf, et se lève à deux, et cela tous les jours de sa vie si ce n'est le dimanche. Cet excès de veille et de travail usent la nature humaine, et de là vient qu'hommes et femmes vieillissent beaucoup plutôt dans les campagnes que dans les villes." (Mirabeau, l.c., t. III, p. 212 sqq.)

S. 766, Note 222
"Whenever the legislature attempts to regulate the differences between masters and their workmen, its counsellors are always the masters." "L'esprit des lois, c'est la propriété."

S. 769f., Note 225
"L'anéantissement de toutes expèces de corporations du même état et profession étant l'une des bases fondamentales de la constitution française, il est déféndu de les rétablir de fait sous quelque prétexte et sous quelque forme que ce soit." ... "des citoyens attachés aux mêmes professions, arts et métiers prenaient des délibérations, faisaient entre eux des conventions tendantes à refuser de concert ou à n'accorder qu'à un prix déterminé le secours de leur industrie ou de leurs travaux, les dites délibérations et conventions ... seront déclarées inconstitutionnelles, attentatoires à la liberté et à la déclaration des droits de l'homme etc." ("Révolutions de Paris", Paris 1791, t. III, p. 523.)

S. 772, Note 228
Knight: "You, my neighbour, the husbandman, you Maister Mercer, and you Goodman Copper, with other artificers, may save yourselves metely well. For as much as all things are deerer than they were, so much do you arise in the pryce of your wares and occupations that yee sell agayne. But we have nothing to sell where by we might advance ye pryce there of, to countervaile those things that we must buy agayne." ... "I pray you, what be those sorts that ye meane. And, first, of those that yee thinke should have no base hereby?" - Doktor: "I meane all these that live by buying and selling, for, as they buy deare, they sell thereafter." -Knight: "What is the next sorte that yee say would win by it?" - Doctor: "Marry, all such as have takings or fearmes in their owne manurance" (d.h. cultivation) "at the old rent, for where they pay after the olde rate, they sell after the newe - that is, they paye for their lande good cheape, and sell all things growing thereof deare ..." Knight: "What sorte is that which, ye sayde should have greater losse hereby, than these men had profit?" - Doctor: "It is all noblemen, gentlemen, and all other that live either by a stinted rent or stypend, or do not manure" (cultivate) "the ground, or doe occupy no buying and selling." [William Stafford, "A Compendious or Briefe Examination of Certayne Ordinary Complaints of Diverse of our Countrymen in these our Days", London 1581.]

S. 772, Note 229
"C'est li compte que messire Jacques de Thoraisse, chevalier chastelain sor Besançon rent es seigneur tenant les comptes à Dijon pour monseigneur le duc et comte de Bourgoigne, des rentes appartenant à la dite chastellenie, depuis XXVe jour de décembre MCCCLIX jusqu'au XXVIIIe jour de décembre MCCCLX." (Alexis Monteil, "Histoire des Matériaux manuscrits etc.", p. 234, 235.)

S. 774, Note 232
"Je permettrai", ... "que vous ayez l'honneur de me servir, à condition que vous me donnez le peu qui vous reste pour la peine que je prends de vous commander." (J. J. Rousseau, "Discours sur l'Économie Politique". (Genève 1760, p. 70].)

S. 775f., Note 234
"Twenty pounds of wool converted unobtrusively into the yearly clothing of a labourer's family by its own industry in the intervals of other work - this makes no show; but bring it to market, send it to the factory, thence to the broker, thence to the dealer, and you will have great commercial operations, and nominal capital engaged to the amount of twenty times its value ... The working class is thus emerced to support a wretched factory population, a parasitical shopkeeping class, and a fictitious commercial, monetary and financial system." (David Urquhart, l.c.p. 120.)

S. 783, Note 243b
"Si les Tartares inondaient l'Europe aujourd'hui, il faudrait bien des affaires pour leur faire entendre ce que c'est qu'un financier parmi nous." (Montesquieu, "Esprit des lois", t. IV, p. 33, éd. Londres 1769.)

S. 790, Note 251
"Nous sommes [...] dans une condition tout-à-fait nouvelle de la société... nous tendons à séparer [...] toute espèce de propriété d'avec toute espèce de travail." (Sismondi, "Nouveaux Principes de l'Écon. Polit.", t. II, p. 434.)

S. 798, Note 268
"... Dans les colonies où l'esclavage a été aboli sans que le travail forcé se trouvait remplacé par une quantité équivalente de travail libre, on a vu s'opérer la contrepartie du fait qui se réalise tous les jours sous nos yeux. On a vu les simples travailleurs exploiter à leur tour les entrepreneurs d'industrie, exiger d'eux des salaires hors de toute proportion avec la part légitime qui leur revenait dans le produit. Les planteurs, ne pouvant obtenir de leurs sucres un prix suffisant pour couvrir la hausse de salaire, ont été obligés de fournir l'excédant, d'abord sur leurs profits, ensuite sur leurs capitaux mêmes. Une foule de planteurs ont été ruinés de la sorte, d'autres ont fermé leurs ateliers pour échapper à une ruine imminente ... Sans doute, il vaut mieux voir périr des accumulations de capitaux, que des générations d'hommes" (...) "mais ne vaudrait-il pas mieux que ni les uns ni les autres périssent?" (Molinari, l.c.p. 51, 52.)

S. 800, Note 272
"C'est, ajoutez-vous, grâce à l'appropriation du sol et des capitaux que l'homme, qui n'a que ses bras, trouve de l'occupation, et se fait un revenu ... c'est au contraire, grâce à l'appropriation individuelle du sol qu'il se trouve des homme n'ayant que leurs bras ... Quand vous mettez un homme dans le vide, vous vous emparez de l'atmosphère. Ainsi faites-vous, quand vous vous emparez du sol ... C'est le mettre dans le vide de richesses, pour ne le laisser vivre qu'à votre volonté." (Colins, I. c., t. III, p. 267 - 271 passim.)

S. 801, Note 275
... "The first and main object at which the new Land Act of 1862 aims, is to give increased facilities for the settlement of the people." ("The Land Law of Victoria, by the Hon. G. Duffy. Minister of Public Lands", Lond. 1862, [p. 3].)